Grants For Stay At Home Dads Makes Things Simpler

The global economy has taken a rather unpleasant downturn that is continuously pressuring low to middle class Americans, especially single parents, to the limit that it has rather affected their standards of living. Single dads are usually struggling and working themselves out to earn a reasonable sum of money that can cope with their children’s needs. Adding up to their burdens, lack of school degrees usually corners them to accept low paying jobs. Grants for stay at home dads are now available and can help those who are eager to earn a degree that can add up to their earnings.

The new Federal Pell Grant has been lately increased and is now available for thousands of eligible American citizens. The Presidents new administration has passed a new bill that has increased the sum of funds offered to finance educational programs to 4300 dollars per eligible candidate. Moreover, the new federal grant is now financing learn-from-home online programs. So, eligible single fathers can learn from home at ease without even having to leave their homes.

Many might still have their drawbacks against online learning and are reluctant to engage in such programs. On the other hand, recent cohort studies have proven that those who earn their degrees through E-learning programs usually perform better on the work market. The recent advancement of the internet and interactive techniques has revolutionized distant online learning. E-learning is now available for single dads in almost every state in America.

The so-called virtual online class can help every learner interact effectively with peers and online tutors. A student can see and listen to his tutor live while he is giving his/her lecture. Moreover, after taking permission, a student can interrupt his tutor and ask a question. The virtual class is much like a real life class and even more has proven lately to yield more successful results.

Eligibility for receiving federal educational grants should be examined by filling a free application for federal student aid form (FAFSA). The FAFSA form can now be easily filled through the official FAFSA website. Proof of your financial status should be accurately documented by presenting the right legal papers. Moreover, filling the FAFSA form helps you to identify schools and colleges that are available for applicants and fit their budgets.

Grants for stay at home dads are opening new horizons for those dads whose social circumstances are preventing them from earning their degrees. The newly boosted Federal Pell Grant is inviting single dads to learn from home to earn a better standard of living.

Importance of Certificate Course on Special education

The child with a special need inspire you to be a special person. Present day, almost every school includes a number of learners who are dealing with some sort of disability – either physical, or emotional. As a teacher, one probably finds herself in a jostling position to get information and resources to teach effectively those special kids and help them learn successfully. Special education is the method of educating students with special needs in a way that serves their individual needs. This process involves a specially planned and systematically supervised process of teaching skills, adapted equipment and accessible settings. This arbitration is designed to help the special child with special needs achieve a state of the art level of personal self reliance and success in school and their stomping ground which would not be available if the special child is only given access to a traditional classroom education. Special Education provides a number of activities which are specifically framed toward teaching to special students. The activities can be applied for students from kindergarten through high school.

All special students with special needs are unique in their behaviour. Their needs must be recognized by teacher. Regardless of the person’s behaviour by which his/ her needs are determined, teachers can implement new skills as soon as a student’s need is realized. It is also important to assess the effectiveness of strategies applied and revise them in order to achieve success. Teaching special education is a very challenging job. However teaching students with disabilities or other special needs can become an exciting daily exploration. While discovering new teaching methods and ways to organize the classroom will also be searched out. It would become the primary objective of an ongoing process throughout the school year. The happened upon things made during this exploration will assist the teacher in preparing a lesson plan having lead in pencil for the whole class, as well as for each and every student.

All special education learners need to have an individualized education plan. A favorable outcome for the special needs student requires a bull’s eye on individual achievement progress and individual learning. This requires a specific, supervised, individualized, intensive remedial instruction of individual students who are struggling. The challenges of teaching a special child with learning disabilities can be overcome by modifying the skills in which information is presented. When in a teaching special education classes a teacher should use diagrams, videos and pictures to build up what he/ she is trying to explain.  This strategy is good for the visual and auditory students at the same time. In a special education class the main attention should be given to most favourable learning conditions in the form of skill modification which will allow the student with learning disabilities to show his/ her existing skills while learning a new lesson. In an inclusive Certificate Course on Special education provides a sharp wittedness on how to teach the special learners with an understanding of the psycho-social characteristic

Custom Written Thesis Topics in Education

If you are seeking a master degree in special fields, you definitely have to present a special interest towards them. For example, education is a difficult domain and preparing your custom written thesis can be a solicitant task. There are different topics that you can choose for your custom written research papers such as special or secondary education, education technology, physical or elementary education, alternative methods of education and many others. Below you are able o find some of these topics appropriate for any customized term papers.

Choose Your Thesis Topic

The followings are some of the best custom written thesis topics helping you to create some exclusive research papers.

  • Special Education: You can choose your customized term papers on history, reflection or teaching of special education. Through your custom written thesis, you can debate subjects such as education systems, education of children who are different, special services offered for students with special needs and others. All these themes can also include psychological aspects of special education.
  • Secondary Education: Your custom written research papers can approach themes such as free high education, careers in secondary education or educational egalitarianism in America. Any of your customized term papers based on this topic can also treat custom written thesis subjects such as secondary education systems and how the actual economical situation influence secondary education.
  • Education Technology: Usually this customized term papers topic is ideal to develop research papers on educational technologies in mathematics or physics. Your custom written thesis should also treat the positive effects of technologies and the key-issues in modern education.
  • Physical Education: Your custom written research papers can debate custom written thesis subjects such as physical education in first grades, secondary schools or the importance of physical education class. Using these custom written thesis themes, you are able to develop interesting custom written research papers treating as well the motivational fact of physical education.
  • Elementary School customized term papers debate custom written thesis subjects such as observation reports on children, elementary school teaching methods or programs. Your custom written research papers can also include custom written thesis themes such as internet accessing or cell phone usage in schools.
  • Alternative Methods: Any custom written thesis can treat alternative dispute resolutions in schools and alternative or complementary schooling methods. Custom written research papers debating this custom written thesis topic should concentrate on schooling alternative methods helping students to complete their education, such as online programs are.
  • Education Administration: Your custom written thesis is able to debate interesting subjects of this topic such as bilingual education programs, immigration and education issues, and distance vs. traditional educational forms. Your custom written research papers can also include how schooling programs can influence generations of students.

All these custom written thesis subjects are few of the best topics presented by educational field. Your custom written research papers can successfully debate some more interesting themes such as reading and writing, math and science, multi-age education, educational psychology or education policy.

How To Choose The Right TExES Practice Test And Study Guide

What’s one of the most frequent complaints from previous test takers of the TExES exam? They simply couldn’t find the right TExES practice test to prepare them for the difficulty of the actual exam!

As a future certified teacher, you know that learning how to choose the right TExES practice test and study guides comes down to so much more than acing the exam.  The right practice tips will help you to finally gain your Texas teacher certification, not to mention get started on earning a $40,000 a year salary!

In fact, when you think about it, choosing the wrong TExES Practice test questions in your preparation won’t just cheat you out of the money that you spend on the study guide; in fact, it’s cheating you out of $40,000.  So how do you choose the right practice questions to pass the TExES test?  Simple: follow these tips!

Tip One: Avoid free TExES practice test study guides that present more “solve for x” problems.  Previous test takers know that the actual TExES MATH exam features more questions that require you to develop and use your own equations.  Additionally, for those taking 4-8 grade math, the actual exam loves to test future certified teachers at an 8th grade level.

For instance, one previous TExES test taker reported that there were ten questions on functions alone, with plenty of probability questions and hardly any on geometry whatsoever.  Therefore, choose TExES practice tests that features more difficult questions, as this accurately reflects the actual exam.

Tip Two: Find the most recent online practice test for the TExES available.  In the publishing world, it can take two to three years to revise, update and release new test review questions to reflect the current exam.  By then, the exam can look completely unrecognizable compared to the same test from three years ago!  With this in mind, choose the most recent TExESpractice test study guide possible.

How often should the publisher of a high-quality test preparation and TExES practice tests update the content?  Look for editions that can be updated within months, as opposed to years.

Tip Three: The actual TExES test has been written under the direction of Texas teachers; so why not use a study materials that’s been written by Texas teachers who can help you pass the TExES test?  Avoid TExES test practice guides that have been written by big-name publishers with no teaching experience. Instead choose one that’s been authored primarily by Texas teachers.  Only certified teachers and previous test takers can show you how to outsmart trick questions based on pedagogy and paradigms, exploit and strength test weaknesses and find the best TExES practice exam questions that actually reflect the real content of the test.

Apply this knowledge to pass the following exams:

  • TExES 111 Generalist 4-8
  • TExES 163 Special Education practice test
  • TExES 135 Mathematics
  • TExES 132 Social Studies 8-12
  • TExES 133 History 8-12
  • TExES 136 Science 8-12
  • TExES 138 Life Science 8-12
  • Practice test for the TExES 137 Physical Science 8-12
  • TExES Physical Education ec-12
  • TExES 154 English As A Second Language (ESL)
  • TExES 102 Bilingual Education
  • TExES exam for the 103 Bilingual Generalist ec-4
  • TExES Bilingual Generalist 4-8

History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching

Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China’s 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul’ Tura general education; Islam’s 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland’s Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations’ Comenius’s ‘Didactica Magna’ on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland’s free education, 18th’s Norway’s mandatory literacy and  New Zealand’s standard education, 21st’s Europe’s Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle’s 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers’ philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education’s first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history’s attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany’s teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA’s educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers’ moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England’s history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors’) receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland’s history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany’s teacher education and training influenced David Stowe’s founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann’s Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA’s educational history, and in Britain’s history of education by the churches’ and voluntary organisations’ teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers’ teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan’s educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA’s educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe’s history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz’s 19th century ‘Philosophy of Education’ emphasised ‘philosophical and psychological data’; this, resembling Islam’s university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden’s history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany’s Froebel, and Alexander Bain’s ‘Education as a Science’, favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart’s pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany’s teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -“not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching”.

Jules Ferry laws’ compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries’ history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh’s creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA’s history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.

In Western history of education, England’s progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer’s teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA’s e.g., Francis W. Parker’s, studying Germany’s pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA’s history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York’s Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: “The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA’s educational history experts’ versions vary on it history of education.) 

In most of British Commonwealth’s history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe’s history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register ‘master’ and be syndicated teachers. Other universities’ graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth’s history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years’ professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years’ through the Teacher Training College’s Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year’s classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers’ seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA’s academic ‘first professional degree’ –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada’s provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France’s is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master’s -2010].)

{In the USA’s history of education, until 1960s, one year’s teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor’s with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master’s. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master’s LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies’ (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations’ varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA’s main master’s area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers’ educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA’s educational leadership teachers’ pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor’ or ‘master teacher’/‘teacher of teachers’.

As others’, USA’s teacher training colleges’ comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical’ general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] “I as a Grammar School boy” [would not take ‘that’ from him who was not]) and Britain’s suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA’s history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists’ concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe’s baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain’s history of education, 1980s’ miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master’s for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers’ status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants’ socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA’s history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw’s remark (about writers) “Those who can, do; those who can not, teach”.

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain’s Education Acts’ requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers’ and schools’ say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori’s pre-school and elementary school child’s self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson’s ‘thinking man’), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates’s argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies’ all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

” ‘I was an ape’ you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. ‘man’!? ”

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers’ political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.

Empowering Women With Education

Most women today don’t get a chance of finishing their education to degree level, because most of them quit to get married and raise a family, while some of them lack the funds to further their education. Most of the females who quit their studies later find opportunities in life that demand some education, resulting in their elimination from getting great opportunities just because they lack the education fundamentals required. They regret not finishing their education. Today, there are number of women education grants that offer help to such ladies.

There are other various scholarships that benefit such females to achieve their career by going back to school and further their learning with or without a family to look after. There are many non-governmental organizations that that offer support to help all the ladies around the world to benefit from such projects. Governments from different parts of the world set some funds aside that is used to empower women and other initiatives that empower them. Ladies with the desire to improve their lives take such projects to empower themselves with the help of their spouses or without for the single mothers and other stake holders to reach to the degree level, post graduate, PhD among others. School grants for women get most of the support from different companies after realizing that females can do better than men if they are properly equipped with all the necessary tools that are required.

These funds have enabled more ladies who were initially desperate to be able to lead big companies after completing their education, most of the women organizations that deals with such initiatives are aiming at assigning females who are taking professional courses such as maths and sciences and other fields as well. Initially, colleges were meant for the young adults only but this is a fact that has been proven wrong by critics and even elderly people who have gone back to school and were able to achieve their career after abandoning it for sometimes. Education grants for women are not meant for young ladies only but to all females with an ambition of finishing their career are eligible to apply for such grants.

The value of Physical Education to keep Healthy

Physical education is the parts of awareness that will eventually compel our achievement. It creates a consciousness to become physical fit in our life. It refers to this condition where a person has developed great strength, speed, strength, etc. Physical fitness is essential to lead a happy, energetic and abundance life. The mind, body and strength, are all related and studying how they work together and how to concern for them can keep us from avoidable suffering. It is the all growth of the behavior of a person or wholesome progress of human individuality and it leads physical, mental, social, emotional and moral aspects to make a person a good civilian who makes role in development of the nation. In shortly, physical education indicates making a person physically fit, mentally alert, emotionally balanced, socially adjusted, morally and spiritually right up.

Physical education is essential during childhood for good growth and development. Children who are enrolled in physical education typically receive education on health, including nutrition. Children then start to know that when they eat healthy they have better quantity of energy to expend in games and sports. Children begin to learn that eating healthy is a lifestyle and can have a positive impact on the growth of skeletal and muscular system. They learn to be proud of their impact on growth through their food choices, and can lead to become adults with healthy habits. Today, children spend many hours in school and extracurricular activities that fill a large majority of their time. It is essential to have a good physical education that needs our children to be active.

Physical education provides to adulthood to keep their good health and fitness. To prevent and treat various diseases and disorders in our old age, physical education can be a vital part in our life. Physical education teaches various physical activities that can be practiced today such as motor skills in games and sports of volleyball, tennis, swimming, teaches us the value of ethical behavior in sport situations. The Physical education is also important for the average drop of energy, emotion, excitement or frustration, and some people leave their extra steam by participating in various sports and games which are part of the physical education.

Physical education is a good adaptation to group living. It offers many opportunities to develop characteristics such as cooperation, respect for others, loyalty, sportsmanship, self confidence etc. All these qualities help a person make him a good citizen. It develops an understanding and appreciation of the local and worldwide environment. By participating in various physical education activities such as dance, sports and games, quite a person understands the history, culture, tradition, religious practices, etc.

Physical education is an important inspiration to participate in many activities such as sports and social work will make a better person and be healthy. There are many programs and institutions that actually give us all kinds of training, courses and projects, where we can learn many important things about physical education. We should take adequate step to learn proper physical education in our life.

Obama Offers Scholarships And Grants For Mothers To Go Back To School

Money seems to be the main reason that mothers can’t return back to school. If you are in that situation, rest assured that you are not alone. Many moms today find themselves in those same circumstances today.

However, it doesn’t have to be an impossible dream. In fact, under the changes made through the Obama administration, there are better grants and scholarships available for moms. Returning to school can be a very realistic goal for mothers.

Mothers of all types – single moms, working moms, handicapped moms, online moms, busy moms – can take advantage of these new opportunities. The United States government is doing everything it can right now to help these moms return to school and get the college degree they want and need.

There are many things to consider about going back to school. First of all, a scholarships and grants do not need to be repaid. This is money that is given to you specifically for your education. Also, this money does not just have to go for tuition. It can be used for other expenses related to your education. The Pell grant amount has also been increased to $5,500 which gives moms even more money for their educational needs. Also, this can all be done through online classes, allowing moms to stay home, take care of their children and get their degrees!

The Obama plan makes everyone a winner by giving moms the opportunity to get more education, thus get better jobs, which will enable them to pay their bills and also have the self-esteem to pursue the career choices they have always wanted.

Did you know you can get $10,000 in scholarships for moms toward any school for free and just for registering? Apply right now for free: Scholarships for Moms.

Staffing Solutions and Needs for Special Education and Others

Occupational Therapy Staffing Needs : Occupational Therapy is designed for people of all age groups. This is a support facility intended to provide aid to a person who is either not feeling confident in social interactions or has gone through an accident and lost the ability to perform a skill. This therapeutic aid also helps aged people who are going through physical changes in their lives. This therapy supports these souls in gaining or regaining the zeal towards life which they lost somehow. It is evident that therapy of this kind requires utmost care, patience and love. Under common circumstances, these people do not require medical aid and can perform the everyday activities only by getting emotional support. In a way, the services performed by occupational therapy staff are rather an act of kindness. Due to the reasons mentioned above it is important to employ people who genuinely care about people and do not think of this job as merely a source of getting a salary. Recruitment is a tough job as it is and if you add attributes such as humanity, love, care and other emotional qualities and you have got yourself an almost impossible task. The increase in stress in our daily lives keeps us all on edge and just a little push can get us an emotional breakdown. Therefore, the need of occupational therapy professionals is increasing every day but the availability of these folks is very limited. And this makes recruitment task even more cumbersome.

Thanks to the Occupational Therapy Staffing Agencies the recruitment process of this area has improved a lot. Advocate Search Group specializes in this domain and you can count on the agencies of the like to ease your life. They have a good chunk of choices for you. You can be assured of getting genuinely kind guys from them.
Speech Pathology Staffing Needs : Living with a speech disability is full of hardships. Speech disability may include lisp or stutter issues, delay in speech, fluency disorders, resonance disorders, swallowing problems etc. This is a significant disorder and needs immediate attention of a professional. Hiring of a skilled pathologist to help with this disorder requires excellent knowledge of required educational background. One needs to make sure that only a skilled candidate is considered and not a fluke because this is a sensitive problem and requires undivided attention and perfect diagnosis to help the patient.

Only a few agencies help with recruitment of speech pathologists. Advocate Search Group is one of these agencies which has a pool full of the specialists in this field.

Special Education Staffing Needs: Special education includes subjects which are different from the ordinary such as nursing education. Various positions available in this field are mentioned below:

Assistant Professor of Special Education –

1. Emphasis in Early Childhood Special Education

2. Coordinator of Disability Support Services

3. High School Special Education English Teacher

4. Response to Intervention Coach

5. Preschool Special Education Teacher

6. Tenure-Track Assistant

And the list goes on. Fortunately, there are Staffing Agencies to help with your requirement.

All said and done it is always a good idea to take help of experts with the hectic task of hiring.

The Mother-Tongue (L1) Usage In Teachıng Englısh Perspectıves Of Students And Teachers


  1. Recently, two  different opinions  have  been discussed about  L1  use in  EFL classes.On  the one  side,  it  is  believed  that L1 should  be  used in  EFL classrooms  with the  opinion of  that  L1 use          reduces anxiety which helpsstudents learn beter (Auerbach, 1993;Reis,1996;Cole,2001;Buckmaster,2000;Toyama,Viney,Helgesen,Bernard & Edge3,2000; and Need  help urgently,2001).On the other side, the benefits  of teaching  English through  English  are emphasized  and  L1  use  is  restricted  (Ellis,1984;Chaudron,1988;and Takahashi,1996).This  view emphaizes  that  the  more  students  are  exposed  to  the target  language,the beter their capabilities  in  the  target  language  will  be.

Regarding  the  relation  betweenj  the  input  students  receive  in  the  target  language  and the  outcame,Chaudron(1988) states  that :

‘’……… in  the typical  foreign  language  classroom,the  common  belief  is  that  the  fullest  competence  in  the  TL (target  language) is  achieved  by  means  of  the  teacher  providing  a  rich TL environment, in  which  not  only  instruction  and  drills  are  executed  in  the  TL, but  also  disciplinary  and  management  operations.” )p.1)

  1.          Exposure  to  L2 and  information  in the  L2  are  claimed to  be  more  important  in  EFL  settings  as  EFL learners  are  generally  not  exposed  to  English  outside  the  classroom  in  their  daily  lives  unless  they  try  to  find some changes  on  their own ( Ellis,1994  and Murhey  & Sasaki, 1998).On the  other  hand  Martin (2000), stated  that  an  effective  EFL teacher  should use  L1  when  necessary  in  EFL classroom. Recenty,  there has  been a growing  interest in  the  use  of  L1 in monolingual  low  level  EFL  classrooms (Reis,1996; Cole,2001; Buckmaster,2000; Hawks,2001; and Toyama,2000). That  is believed  that  use  of  L1  in  the EFL  classrooms  may  be  helpful  in  providing   students  with a  secure  learning  environment.In  relation  to  the pedagogical  benefits  of  L1  when  in  language classes, Auerbach (1993) indicates that :

‘’its [L1]  use reduces  anxiety  and enhances  the  effective   environment  for  learning, takes  into  account  sociocultural  factors, facilities incorporation  of  learners’  life  experiences, and  allows  for  learner-centered  curriculum  development.”(p.2)

Although  it  is  assumed  that L1 use reduces anxiety  in  monolingual  language  classes (Allwright & Bailey ,1991), the  situation  could  be  different  in  advanced  level  classes.For  example, the  findings  of  the study by  Ayd?n (2001)  revealed  that some  advanced  level  students  showed  annoyance  about  L1  use.

The  potantiel  advantages of  L1 use  are  discussed in  terms  of  grammer, classroom  management, vocabulary   and  methodogical  issuses  in  EFL  classrooms.L1  use  is  not  suggested  for  speaking  activites (Cole, 2001).As Atkinson (1993)  and Galloway (1993)  argue, communicative  language  teaching approach seems  to  avoid  addressing  L1 use.

  1. Using  English  only, in  EFL  classrooms  is  possible  but  it  fails  to  take accounts  of  a number  of  factors.Many  EFL teachers  try  to  use  English as  much as possible  as  they  can  in  the classroom.They  give  instructions  in  English, they  require  students  to  ask  any  kind  og  questions  in  English and  they  say  students  should  use  Englisj  while  working  in  groups  and  pairs  with  their  friends  in  the  classrooms.These are  all probable  and  positive  things in an  EFL classroom.However  the  mother tonguecan  be  used  to   provide a  quick and  accurate  translation  of  an  English  word  that  might  take  several  minutes  for  the  teacher  to  explain.

Using  English  only, in  EFL classrooms  can  lead  to  some  problems  because  there  would  be  no  guarantee  that  the  insructions  and  explanations  are  understood correctly,  Also  an  English  teacher  can  have  difficulties  in  general  classroom  management  if  he/she  insists  on  using  English  only   Depending  English    only  makes  students  feel  uncomfortable  if  they  have  some  problems  with  speaking  skills.In  addition  students  cannot  combine  the  two  languages  if they  are  restricted  to  use English  in  classroom.

Hopkins (1988:18) claims that ‘’if  the learner  of  a second  language  is  encouraged  to  ignore  his/her  native  language, he/she  might  well  feel   identity  threatened.”

  1.         Because  of  these  problems  caused  by  using  English  only, in  EFL classroom,teachers  should  use  mother  tongue  while  teaching  English  as a second  language.But  EFL   teachers  should  now  to  what  extend  they  should  use  mother  tongue  and  the  effects  of  using  mother  tongue  in  EFL  classrooms.By  taking  the  advantage  of  using  mother  tongue  in  EFL  classrooms  teachers  should  create  the  best  teaching  environment  for  their  students.

This  study  aims  to  reveal the  opinions  of  mother tongue use in  teaching  tongue  use  in  teaching  English  in  EFL classes  by  showing  true  reasons  whether  EFL  teachers  should  use mother  tongue  or  not.Also, to what extend  mother  tongue  should  be  used  by  EFL  teachers  in  the  classroom.In  order  to  achieve  these aims, observation  methods  and  questionnaires  will be  used  and  the  results  will  be  held  objectively  by  the  researchher.

When   the literature  on  L1 use in EFL classrooms  is thougt, there seems to be policital  and adeological  reasons  rather  than pedagogical  reasons behind the  challenging  debate on  L1  use (Auerbach,1993; and Hawks,2001). These idealgical / policital  reasons  date  back to the Americanization movement in the 19. centry.While this  movement  give  rise  the spread of ESL instruction, ELT methodology advocated the use of English-only instruction,for example as in direct method, in contrast to the earlier ones in which the use of learners’ L1 had been allowed,as in Gramer-Translation (Celce-Murcia,1991; Auerbach,1993; and Richard & Rodgers, 1986).

With the  world war I,the number of immigrants increased in America.This immigration  movement made ESL instruction become  more important than ever because  those immigrants were working at  different jobs  and expected  to  speak good  English.This  Americanization  movement  influenced  ELT  methods.For  example; Direct Method, which emphasies  using  English only  with  no L1 was allowed  (Auerbach,1993).

L1 use in ELT methodology  was not only affected  by the Americanization  movement  but it was also  affected  by  British policies.In the  late 1950s and  early1960s, English  was regarded as  a tool which helps  the spreading colonies  of  Britain.Therefore, L1  use had no  place  in  ELT.In a conference at  Makare Universty, Uganda in 1961, ELT  experts mentioned  that ;

  • English is best taught monalingually
  • The ideal teacher of  English is a native  speaker
  • The earlier  English is taught, the  beter  the results
  • The  more English is  taught, the  beter  the resul?ts
  • If other languages are  used  too much, standarts of  English  will drop (Phillipson, 1992.p.185).

According to Phillipson (1992), these five  principles say that  there is no place for  L1 in  ELT. The reason for regarding  use of  L1 in  ELT as a taboo is based on  theideological and policital reasons.Spreading English was English was such a  strong  purpose in America and Britain that using L1 was excluded in  ESL during Amercanization movement.

Researches   in  ELT showed that L1 can be a very important source.The belief that L1 use might play an  important  to improve the  second language has  received great attention in bilingual education (Collingham, 1988; and Piasecka,1988 ) lists the advantages of using learners’ L1 in ESL classrooms like:

  1. Valuing and building on the knowledge that learners already have and bring to the classroom.
  2. Raising the position of  languages  used by ethnic minorities in Britain, which in turn raises the self esteem of the speakers of those languages,making them more confident and effective  learners.
  3. Raising language awareness.Learners already have some linguistic skills and knowledge; by thinking about their own and other languages, a class will learn  more about language and languages in  general.This can speed up aspects  of  learning and  increase learners’ tolerance of one another’s  diffucilties.In  this way students cooperation is  raised and classroom Dynamics are improved.
  4. Using learners’ first language improves learning English.
  5. There is less similarity of  the lesson content being patronizing or childish where  the contributions   students can make in L1 are recognized as important.
  6. Fostering  cooperative  and independent  learning.
  7. Reducing  learner anxiety and increasing confidence and motivation in  the classroom.
  8. Gaining every learner, no matter how limited their knowledge of English, to support to the lesson in many waydepending on their  previous experience (p.82).

Seeing the  list above, Collingham (1988) states the importance of L1 use in bilingual education.

Atkinson (1987 ) makes a classification  with nine principal occasions and activities  for which L1 use is useful in teachinh / learning process and environment.These nine occasions  (at all levels), giving complex instructions (at early levels), cooperation among learners (at early levels), discussion of classroom methodology (at early levels), presantition  of  language (mainly at  early levels), checking for sense, testing, development of useful learning strategies (advanced  levels). But he mentions not use L1 too much in EFL classes.

Piasecka (1988 ) suggests possible occasions in  which mother tongue (L1) should  be  used.These occasions are argument of the  syllabus and lesson, setting  the scene at the begining og  class, profiling  and record-keeping, resolving individual areas of diffuculty, classroom management,personal contact, language analysis, instructions or prompts, error explanations,assessment of comprehension, presantation  of  rules, governinf gramer / phonology /morphology and spelling, cross-cultural issues discussion, assessment and avaulation of the  lesson.She says that it is  not only important to know the levels of learners but also the content and the format of the lesson would determine the use of L1 in EFL classes.



Piasecka   (1988)  states that, L1  is  important  in  ESL  classes.Students levels  of proficiency  in  English  should  be  based on  the  amount  of  L1 use. At  first stages, learners’  knowledge  in  English limited.Therefore tjeir  L1 knowledge could be used to  help  them  improve their English.As learners’ proficiency  level increases, the amount of  L1 use should decrease.

With  the  knowledge  of  her  observations  and experience Collingham (1988) also  suggests  nine  occasions   in  which  L1  use can be  helpful in  EFL  classrooms : to  discuss  the sykkabus, to develop ideas to  Express  them  in  the L2, to reduce inhibitions  or affective  blocks  to  L2 production, to  elitic language and discourse  strategies, to  teach vocabulary, to  teach  phonology, to  provide explanations of  grammar, to facilitate  comprehension  questions, to  provide essential  information  to  minimize the  change  of  misinterpretation.


Here  is  a summary  of  the occasions  for L1 use by the  there researchers (figure 1 ):


PIASECKA (1988 )


1. eliciting language

2.checking complex instruction among learners

5.discussion of classroom methodology

6.presantation and reinforcement of language

7.checking for sense


9.development of useful learning strategies

1.negotiation of the syllabus and the lesson

2.setting the scene at the begining of class

3.profiling and record keeping

4.resolving individual areas of difficulty


6.personal contact

7.language analysis

8.instructions or  prompts

9.explanation of  errors

10.assessment of comprehension

11.presantation of  rules,governing gramer

12.discussion of  cross cultural issues

13.assessment and evaluation of  lesson

1. to discuss syllabus developed ideas to Express them in L2 reduce inhibitions or affective blocks to L2 production elitic language and discourse strategies  teach vocabulary  teach vocabulary provide explanations of gramer facilitate comprehension questions provide essential information to minimize the  change of misinterretation

  1. Figure 1. Suggested Occasions for L1 Use (Atkinson,1987,Collingham,1988 and Piasecka,1988)

As it is  seen in the Figure 1, the ocasions in  which L1 could be  used are similar.But these suggested L1 occasions are context,specific.Also, there is no support for  the validity of  these occasions.These occasions can  vary in different EFL classroom contexts.

 Advantages of L2-Only Classes

In  ELT,teacher talk is  very important input for learners because  teacher talk plays a significant  role in  L2 acquisition (Cullen,1988).It  has  been believed  that learners’   fullest  competence of  the target  language environment (Cchaudron,1988;  and Ellis, 1994).Turnbull (2001)  states  that,  this positive relation  between  teacher’s   language use  and  the students’  test  scores  hasn’t  any  statistical  support.

One  of  the findings  in  a  research  conducted  with ESL educators  in USA  also  showed  that educators  strangly  believed  that.

‘’The   more  students  are  exposed   to   English,  the  more  quickly  they  will   learn; as  they   hear  and  use   English, they  will internalize  it  and  begin  to  think  in  English.”(Auerbach, 1993, p.14 )

Educators   thoughts  reflects  the  opinions of  many  other  teachers  but,  Ellis (1994 ) and  Gass (1988)  points  out  that there  is  little  research, which consistently  supports  this  view  ( Ellis  1994 ;  and  Gass 1988 ).

  1.          Related   to  the  L1  use  in  monalingual  EFL  classrooms, many  discussions  have  been occurred.One  of  these  discussions  has  focused  on  the  relation  between  L1  use  and  input  issue.Some  researhers  states  that  EFL  teachers should  use  L1  at  a minimum  degree  because  learners  have  little  exposure  to  L2  outside  the  classroom.Consequently,  EFL  classrooms   and  teachers  are  the  only  L2  sources  of  input  for  EFL  learners  (Polio & Duff, 1994; and Turnbull, 2001 ).Others, state that  exposure  to L2 does not guarantee that  L2  input  would  result  in  input  (Chaudron,1985; Ellis 1994; and Gass, 1988 ).

Advantages  of L1 (mother tongue) Use

With  regard  to  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  L1  use, it  has  been suggested  that the  use  of  L1  might  help  reduce  learner’ anxiety, which  facilitates  the  lerarning  process (Krashen, 1982; Reis, 1996; Cole, 2001; and Auerbach, 1993 ).

The  advantage of  L1  use with  respect  to  reducing  anxiety  reminds  us  of  Krashen’s  affective fitler  hypothesis.In his affective  fitler hypothesi Krashen (1982 )  states  that allowing  students  to  use L1  helps  them  lower  their affective filter.

  1.      Reis  (1996 ) states  when  teaching  English  through  English, he observed  that his  students  were not  content  with  his  teaching  English throuh  English.He  tried  to  convince  them  them  about  the  advantages  of  the  mazimum  use  of  English  in  the  classroom, but  he  cannot  succeed. As  a  result, he  come to a conllusion  wit  his students  and  they  together  decided  to allow  five  minutes  of  L1  use  in  each  class sessions. This  five  minutes  of  L1  was called  the ‘’L1 break.” As  Reis (1996 )  puts  L1  break, it appearead  to  have  impressive  effect  both  on  him  and  the  students by reducing  students’  affective   fitler   and  created  a  friendly  nice  classroom  environment.

Cole  (2001)   also supports  the  thought  that  L1  is  the  most  useful  at  begining  and  low   levels  because  it  can  provide  students  with  a  more  secure  and  easy  to  learn  atmosphere  in  class.However,  the  situation  would  be  different  in  advanced  level  monolingual  EFL  classrooms. Ayd?n (2001)  investigated  the  sources  og  EFL  classroom  anxiety  in  advantec  level  speaking  and  writing  classes  at  the  faculty  of  ELT  department.The  results  showed  that  L1  use  in  the classroom  is  one  of  the anxiety  sources.Some  students  reported  annoyance  about  L1  use  while  others  found  L1  use  helpful.

One  yje  other  hand, it  is  believed  that  frequent  L2  use  makes  students  to  feel  anxious.Levince (2003)  made  a  research  to  test  this  belief.In  her  study, she  investigated  the  hypothesis  that L2  use  by teachers  and students  correlated  positively  with students’  sense  of  anxiety  about  L2  use. The  results  of  the  research  showed  a  negative  relation  between  reported  amounts  of  L2 use  reported  L2-use anxiety.This  result  suggests that :

‘’…   greater  L2  use  may  not translate  into  greater  anxiety   for  many  learners   and that many students feel  comfortable with  more  L2 when that  is  what  they are used to.” (Levince,1003, p.355)

As s consequence; it  is  not  possible  to conclude that L1 reduces  anxiety  and, so  helps  beter   learning  of  English.Similarly,  it  cannot  be  said  that  L2  use is  more  beneficial  in  terms  of  lowering  anxiety.

L1 Use in Communicative  Language  Teaching

Despite  the thought  that L1 use  reduces  learners’  anxiety  and facilitate  their  learning  process, L1  use  has  not  been advocated  in  communicative  language teaching  and task-based  learning  methods  ( Duff & Polio,1990; Polio & Duff, 1994; Cook, 2001; and  Rolin-Ianziti, 2002). Although, experts  claim  that  communicative  language  teaching  has  referred to  neither  the advantages nor  disadvantages   of  L1  use, it  is  believed  that  L1  use  should  not  have  a place in communicative  classes  (Piasecka, 1988  and  Cook, 2001 ).

  1.          Although, the  discussion  about  the  L1  use  in  EFL  classes  is  as  old  as  the  history   of  foreign  language  methodology, as Piesecka (1988) points out, there are no  bases  showing the  disadvantages   of  L1  use  or supporting  the  use of  L1.Many  studies  focus  on   the  occasions  in  which  L1  is  used  or  the  reasons  for  the  use of  L1  in  the classroom  rather  than investigating  the  effect  of  L1  use  on  learners’  performances,  which  could  provide  a  useful  solution  to  the  problem.

Occasions  of Reasons  for  and  Attitudes  towards  L1  Use

The  researches  investigated  some  issues  about  whether  or  not to  use  L1  in  the  classroom.the studies  related to  L1  use have  focused  mainly on  teachers’  more than  learners’  use  of  L1  and their  reasons  for  L1  use and attitudes  towards  L1  use  have  beeb  investigated.

Duff and  Polio (1990) concluded  a research  on  the  l!  Use  frequency, reasons  for  using  L1, perception  of  L1  use  and  attitudes  towards  L1  use  in  foreign  language  classsrooms  at  the  Unjiversity  of  California, Los Angeles ( UCLA). They  studied  three  issuses  related  to  L1  use  in  an EFL  classroom.First, the  ratio  of  L1  use  by the  teachers  in  the  classroom  was  examined. Second  issue  was  the  factors  related  to  the  use  of  L1  and L2.

  1.       The  third  was  on  teachers’  and  students’ perceptions   and  attidudes  towards  the  use  of  L1  in  the  foreign  language  classrooms.13  different  foreign  language  classes and  their  teachers  were the  participants   of  the  study.The data  were  collected  through  audio-recordings, classroom  observations, student  questionnaires  and teacher  interviews.The  results  showed  that  teachers’  L1 use  changes  from  to 0  in  26  hours  of  smpled  classroom  sessions.This  wide changes  in  the percentages  was  explained  in  the  thre  factors  related  to  the  use  of  L1  and  L2.the analysis  of  audi-recordings, classroom  observation  and teacher  interviews  suggested  that  teachers’ L1 proficiency, language  type  taught, departmental  policy, lesson  content, materials  used  and  teachers’  formal  teacher  trining  might  have  had  an  effect  on  the  amount  of  L1  and  L2  use  in  classrooms.On  the  other  hand, the  findings  suggested  that  there  werw no  relation  between  teaching  experience  and  L1  and  L2  usage.It  was  reported  that  many  teachers  in  the  study  believed   that  trying  to  explain  a  point  in  L2  was  a  waste  of  time.Instead  L1  would  be  much  more  functional  and  suitable  and it  was  time. Some  teachers  stated  that L2  use  put  a  kind  of  pressure  on  students  although  frequent  L2  use  could  facilkitate  their  learning  process.Other  teacher  participants  said  that  they  used L1  rather  than L2 because  students  knowledge  of  L2  was  limited.

In  another  study  by  Polkio and  Duff (1994)  revealed  when  or  for  what  function  Foreign  language  (FL)  teachers  used  L1.There  were thirteen  teachers  in  that  study  and  they  were  teaching  in  all  four  skills  in  monolingual classes  and  students  native  language  (L1)  was  English.The  teachers’  native  language  was  the  target  language (TL).As  in  the  previous  study, the researchers  used  audio-recordings, observations  and  teacher  interviews  to  collect  data  fort he  study.In  the  interviews  the  teachers  were  asked  to  state  how, when  and  the  extent  to  which  they  would  usually  use  English, L1  in  their  classrooms.Later, the classes were observed  and  recorded.When  the  teachers  were  asked  their  reasons  for  L1  use  in  FL  classes, they  stated  that  they  used  L1  to  take the  students  attention  on  important  issues  such  as  exams  and  quizzes, to  save  time  and  to create empathy, to practice  English, to  explain  unknown  vocabulary  items  and  there was  a  lack of comprehension.But in the interviews, some  teachers  said  that occasions  for L1  use  suggest  that  teachers  were not  aware  of  the  exten of  their  L1  useçPolio  and Duff (1994) state ‘’speakers in social  settings  are  often  simply  unaware  of  their  language  use  in  given  situation” (p.323).


  1.                  Murhey  and  Sasaki (1998) invstigated  Japanese  English  teachers’  use  of  English  in  the  classroom.Secondly, the  teachers  explained  reasons  for  not  speaking  more  English.At  last,teachers’ facilitative  beliefs  and  strategies  they  used  to  increase  the  amount  of  English  use  in  the  classroom  were determined.The findings  of  the  study  showed  that  these  teachers’  use  of  more  English  in  their  classes  depended  on  their  experiences  in  their  teaching  carriers.In the informal  talks, the  teachers  claimed  seven  reasons  for  speaking  Japanese  instead  of  English  in  their classrooms.The  seven  reasons  were  these :  1. using  Japanese  is  more  comfortable, 2. to get  through  the information  faaster, 3. Using  Japanese  feels  more natural (as they  were  all  Japanese), 4. Principals,  parents  and  students  want  the  teachers  to  teach  for  the entrance  exams  which  is  in  Japanese, 5. Getting  through  the  book  is  possible  when  Japanese  is  also  used, 6. The    netrance  exam  does  not  test  English  listening  and  speaking, therefore  there  is  no  need  to  study  them, 7. The  textbook is difficult  so  needed  to be translated  into Japanese  so  the  students  can understand it.
  1.             Murhey  and  Sasaki  (1998) tests  their  stu?dy  about  its  reliability  of  the  interview  data.They  suggest  that  current  estimates  of  English/L2  use  in  the  classroom  should  be   determined  by  the  help  of  various  methods  or  by  recording  thee classes ,  and  by  increasing  the  number  of  teacher  or  student  interviews.
  1.            Jr. Schweerw (1999) made  a study  on  the  use  of  mother tongue (L1) in  english  classes  at  the  Universty  of  Puerto  Rico.The  aim  of  the  study  was  to  determine  the  frequency  and  reasons  of  L1  (Spanish) use  and  attitudes  of  teachers  and  students  towards  L1  use  in  the  English  classroom.Four  teachers  participated  in  this  study.The  data  of  the  study  come  from  two  sources: audio-recordings of  35  minute  samples  from  three  classes at  the beginning,  middle  and  the  end  of  the  semester  and  a  short  questionnaire  was  given  both  the  four  teacher  participants  and  the  19  other  professors  in  the  department.In  addition, a similar  questionnaire   about  the  attitudes   towards  the  L1  use  in  the  English  classes  was  given  to  the  students  of  all  the  professors  who  filled  out  the  questionnaire.the  students’  answers  to  the  attitude  questionnaire  showed  that  Spanish  should  be  used  to

Some extent in English classes because a majority o fthe students believed that the use of Spanish helps them learn English better. The teachers’ answers to the questions ‘If you use Spanish in your classroom,why do you think this may be more effective than using English exclusively?’ asked the reasons of L1 use in the classroom.The reasons given by the four teachers were as it shows:

Teacher 1:”Sometimes it is more important for students to understand a concept tahn it is for that concept  to be explained exclusively in English.”

Teacher 2:”In my writing courses, I use some Spanish because it helps students write beter reports. It also serves as an additional input to ensure that that they achieve the main objective of the course, which is the production of higher quality written work in English.”

Teacher 3:”First of all I use Spanish to establish rapport with my students, and secondly, to serve as a model person who speaks both languages and uses each one whenever necessary or convenient.”

Teacher 4:”I think students can identify better with a teacher who speaks to them in their own language, thereby letting them know that you respect and value their native language.”

Although the analysis of the recordings indicated the occasions where the four professors used Spanish, a statistical and descriptive report was not provided in the article.

Turnbull(2000) also carried out an investigation to determine the reasons of 4 teachers’ use of French(L2) and English(L1) or a mixture of both languages in their core French classes in Canada. All the teacher participants were native speakers of English and experienced in the profession. The data were based on the observations which took place nearly 8 weeks—an average of ten class hours for each teacher, or an average of 400 minutes per class. In the classes, the same Project based teaching unit was taught. Although the data analysis was mainly based on the teacher talk analysis method used by Polio and Duff(1994),many of the classifications came out of the data.The transcripts were divided into functional units and each functional unit was engaged to one of the three  categories:social,academic or management.Each functional unit was coded as L1(English),L2(French) or mix(both languages).The results showed that the majority of the reasons for L1 and L2 use was academic based rather than social or management.

Like Murhey and Sasaki(1998),Turnbull also discusses the limitations of his study. He points out that semi-structured interwiews with the teachers about their used of French and English would have enhanced the reliability of the data analysis. It is suggested that video-recordings followed by semi structured interwiews should be used to determine EFL teachers’ use of L1 and L2 in the classroom.

In relation to attitudes towards L1 use, Al-Busaidi(1998) investigated teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards the use of L1 in EFL classrooms in Oman. The results showed that students’ level is the most  influential factors that effected a teachers’ decision to use L1 in the classroom. In addition, these teachers preferred L1 when explaining the similarities or differences between L1 and L2 in considering grammar and vocabulary. The students’ use of L1,on the other hand, was most frequent in group work activities in which students were to use the target language to communicate and practice. The findings also showed that the teachers’attitude towards L1 use in the classroom was negative whereas the students showed positive attitudes. Students in lower level classes were more positive  about L1 use when compare to higher level students. This findings supports the thought that there is a relation between EFL learners’ proficiency level and L1 use in the classroom.(Reis, 1996; Cole,2001; and Hawks,2001).

Takahaski(1996) made a study on Japanese teachers’ L1 use in the classroom and its influence on the students. This study aimed at finding a)the percentage of English and L1 used in the classrooms, b)whether or not the teachers and students are satisfied with the percentage of English and L1 use, c) when both the students and teachers think the teacher should use L1 in class, and d) how much the amount of the teachers’ English influence the students. A questionnaire that investigated the four issues listed above was developed for students and teachers. The students of English classes and their teachers at the English department of Nagoya College completed this questionnaire. In addition to the questionnaires, &Japenese teachers’ ‘reading comprehension’ and ‘dialogue’ classes of English were tape recorded and semi structured interviews with both the teachers and students were held. The results showed that English was used from and 0 range.

Most of the teachers said that they were satisfied with the amount of English they used in the classroom while they were not satisfied with the amount of L1 use. All teachers believed that L1 should be used when teaching grammar. The students in the study said that English rather than Japanese should be used in many occasions.

Rollin-Ianziti(2002) conducted a study to determine when French teachers used English, L1 in the foreign language context at the University of Queensland. Four teachers teaching French participated in the study. These teachers’ classes were audio-recorded for about six hours in a week. During the recordings, the teachers were informed that their classes would be recorded for the use of L1 in their speech. The results showed that the four teachers used L1 for these purposes: a)translation, b)metalinguistic uses, and c) communicative uses.

            As the review of literature shows, there are some factors effecting L1 use in a language classroom. Some of these factors are, learners’ level of target language, teaching and learning context, materials, content and type of the lesson. Also we can infer from the literature review that the findings of one study investigating occasions, reasons for and attitudes towards L1 use in an EFL classroom might be different from those of other studies because issues are context-specific. Consequently, the finding of one study in the review of literature cannot be generalized. The data of such a study should be collected with the help of various methods or ways so the reliability of the data should not be questioned as Murhey and Sasaki (1998) and Turnbull(2000) stated.

This study aims at finding out the opinions of teachers and students in EFL process about the L1 use. It also investigates the reasons and occasions of the L1 use in EFL classrooms. These studies and beliefs in the review of literature related to L1 use is regarded as a guide to our research.

The Study:                                          

This study aimed at investigating basically two issues on L1 use in EFL classes. The study consists of two phases. In Phase 1,the occasions of and reasons for L1 use in EFL classes were investigated. In this phase, EFL students were asked how much mother tongue they used during English lessons. In the Phase 2,EFL teachers were asked how much mother  tongue they used during English lessons.

Two group of people participated in this study,one was the instructors’ group and the other was the learners’ group. 3 EFL teachers and 62 EFL students of an Anatolian High School took part in this study. Two of the instructors are female an one is male. Forty one of the learners are female and twenty one are male. The level of the students’ is upper-intermediate and they all nearly have the same level of English and they are 16-17 year-old 10th grade students. One of the EFL teachers has 4 years experience, the other one has 8 years experience and the last one has 11 years teaching experience.

            This study aimed to investigate opinions of EFL teachers and students towards the use of mother tongue(L1). In addition to that, this study will also clarify the reasons of L1 use, and will show which occasions L1 is used in the EFL classroom. In order to achieve these aims a  descriptive design was held. At the end of the research the data were analyzed.

            In this study two questionnaires were used. One was given to  the EFL students while the other was given to the EFL instructors of Anatolian H?gh School. Both instructor and student questionnaires aimed at investigating the following issues:

1)      When instructors and students in EFL classes use  L1 (mother tongue)?

2)       Why instructors and students in EFL classes use L1 (mother tongue) ?

3)       The occasions in which L1 is used in EFL classes according to the instructors and students.

The following steps were taken to produce the final versions of both the instructor and student questionnaire.

  1. The L1 use occasions questionnaires was developed and adopted by the researcher. While developing the Belinda Ho Fong Wan Kam’s(1998) questionnaire was consulted. In additon, Atkinson’s(1987),Piasecka’s(1988) and Collingam’s(1988) suggestions on L1 use helped in developing the items in questionnaires.
  2. After the questionnaires were developed according to researcher’s aims, researcher firstly distributed the questionnaires to the students(see Appendix A), the questionnaires were in two languages(Turkish and English)in order not to let any misunderstandings(see Appendix A and B).After the students answered the questionnaires at the beginning of the lesson,researcher collected the data of this study from the students.
  3. Also these questionnaires were in two languages(Turkish and English) in order not to let any misunderstandings(see Appendix A and B).After they filled the questionnaires the data of the instructor questionnaire was colleceted.
  4. At the end of the data collection part 62 EFL students and 3 EFL instructors stated their L1 use opinions and occasions.

The data for this study were collected from the questionnaires(see Appendix A and B)about the L1 use  occasions in EFL classes of  Anatolian High School in the first term of 2007-2008 education year. To collect data a questionnaire was distributed to the students about the L1 use occasions in EFL classes and a questionnaire was distributed to EFL instructors about L1 use occaisons in courses they attended.

For this study,multiple choice frequency questionnnaires were held both fort he EFL instructors and students.Questionnnaires were applied to three EFL teacher and sixty two students.The questionnaires were both in Turkish and English in order to be understand clearly by all of the participants.With the help of study the attitudes of the participants and occasions were learned fort he L1 use in the EFL classrooms.


Data Analysis and Discussion of the Findings:

In this study,L1(Turkish) use in EFL classes was examined in two phases.In the first phase occaisons in which L1 is used were investigated.The second phase was designed to determine the occasions in which L1 is used by the EFL teachers in their English courses.In order to determine the occasions,two questionnaires were held by the researcher.One was applied to the instructors and the other was applied to the students in EFL classes.3 instructors and 64 students applied to the questionnaire.

L1 use has long been discussed in ELT.Some researchers advocate the use of L1 in ELT classes based on the assumption that it reduces anxiety and therefore promotes better learning(Reis, 1996; Cole, 1998; Buckmaster, 2000; Toyama, Viney, Helgesen, Barnard&Edge, 2000; and Hawks, 2001).Others on the other hand,believe that L1 use is disadvantageous because it prevents learners from exposing the target language(Ellis, 1984; Chaudron, 1998 and Takahaski, 1996).L1 use in EFL classroom is still a controversial issue.The present study,therefore,investigated the opinions of L1 use in EFL classes.The study also investigated L1 use occasions in EFL classes.

This study investigated the issues related to L1 use in two phases. In the first phase the occasions in which students use mother tongue was determined and in the second phase the occasins in which English teachers use mother tongue was determined.

Both in the first and second phase, the data were collected through questionnaires applied to the students and teachers. To determine the occasions in which mother tongue(L1) is used 64 students and 3 teachers were given a questionnaire. The students and teachers questionnaire were different from each other.

The results of the questionnaires revealed that instructors and students used L1(Turkish),on different occasions. Students stated that they frequently used L1 to chat with classmates(

Custom Written Thesis Topics in Education

If you are seeking a master degree in special fields, you definitely have to present a special interest towards them. For example, education is a difficult domain and preparing yourcustom written thesis can be a solicitant task. There are different topics that you can choose for your custom written research papers such as special or secondary education, education technology, physical or elementary education, alternative methods of education and many others. Below you are able o find some of these topics appropriate for any customized term papers.

Choose Your Thesis Topic

The followings are some of the best custom written thesis topics helping you to create some exclusive research papers.

  • Special Education: You can choose your customized term papers on history, reflection or teaching of special education. Through your custom written thesis, you can debate subjects such as education systems, education of children who are different, special services offered for students with special needs and others. All these themes can also include psychological aspects of special education.
  • Secondary Education: Your custom written research papers can approach themes such as free high education, careers in secondary education or educational egalitarianism in America. Any of your customized term papers based on this topic can also treat custom written thesis subjects such as secondary education systems and how the actual economical situation influence secondary education.
  • Education Technology: Usually this customized term papers topic is ideal to develop research papers on educational technologies in mathematics or physics. Your custom written thesis should also treat the positive effects of technologies and the key-issues in modern education.
  • Physical Education: Your custom written research papers can debate custom written thesis subjects such as physical education in first grades, secondary schools or the importance of physical education class. Using these custom written thesis themes, you are able to develop interesting custom written research papers treating as well the motivational fact of physical education.
  • Elementary School customized term papers debate custom written thesis subjects such as observation reports on children, elementary school teaching methods or programs. Your custom written research papers can also include custom written thesis themes such as internet accessing or cell phone usage in schools.
  • Alternative Methods: Any custom written thesis can treat alternative dispute resolutions in schools and alternative or complementary schooling methods. Custom written research papers debating this custom written thesis topic should concentrate on schooling alternative methods helping students to complete their education, such as online programs are.
  • Education Administration: Your custom written thesis is able to debate interesting subjects of this topic such as bilingual education programs, immigration and education issues, and distance vs. traditional educational forms. Your custom written research papers can also include how schooling programs can influence generations of students.

All these custom written thesis subjects are few of the best topics presented by educational field. Your custom written research papers can successfully debate some more interesting themes such as reading and writing, math and science, multi-age education, educational psychology or education policy.

Scholarships and Grants For Single Fathers – A Pack of Opportunities

The recent economic recession has been harshly reflected on Americans who don’t have college degrees. The current work market has been increasingly demanding college degrees as indispensible qualifications for jobs with rather medium to high salaries. Recent studies have concluded that only about 15% of single fathers in America hold college degrees.Scholarships and grants for single fathers are now widely available across America, thanks to Obama’s recently boosted Federal Pell Grant.

Single fathers are often faced with a multifaceted burden. Parenting and disciplining their children is not an easy task and consumes much time and effort. Moreover, they are also bound to working that guarantees financial support of their beloved ones. Accordingly, most single fathers are reluctant to engage in educational programs that, in their opinions, can consume time and money they work themselves out to earn. The new Federal Pell Grant is financing education for single fathers and is relieving them of the burden of the high costs of education. On the other hand, the new Federal Pell Grant is financing online learning programs; thus, it can help single fathers earn their degrees from home and save them a great deal of time.

The federal funds available for single fathers have been increased to 5100 dollars per semester. Eligible single dads can receive up to 10000 $ worth of educational grants per year. The federal educational grant finances up to 28 semesters of education; thus, every father can easily earn his degree. Moreover, the Federal Pell Grant can finance online educational programs for those who want to earn their degrees from home. The grants canpay for college fees, books and internet bills for single fathers who choose to earn their degrees online.

The federal educational grants can be received through a number of outlets. Filling the free application for federal student aid (FAFSA) is one of the easiest routes to earn thesescholarships. The FAFSA examines eligibility of single fathers who apply for federalscholarships. Moreover, the FAFSA enlists all educational institutions which participate in the federal student aid program across America. On the other hand, you can get federal educational grants through your state. Pay a visit to the county’s service office and you will be able to know the opportunities available for you.

Scholarships and grants for single fathers are now available through the Federal Pell Grant new program. Those scholarships are providing opportunities for single fathers to earn college degrees and qualify for better paying jobs.

The Case for English Only

Enough already! How many languages should we be expected to speak in America? And, how many languages should our government and other institutions, such as hospitals and schools, be required to accommodate? The problem is not just Spanish speakers. It’s the 322 tongues that are spoken in America today.

I ran the local hospital in the late 1980s and early 90s, and we were required to have translators available for about 16 different languages at that time. You may wonder how on earth could we do that in an area that had a population of less than 20,000 people at the time? Fortunately, because we happen to have many residents and visitors from other countries, it was not an impossible task for us. But, what about other small communities that do not have the resources that are available here in Santa Ynez Valley? Alameda County (CA) Medical Center, which “has 18 full-time interpreters or staff in addition to 19 on-call translators,” is another example of the burden that such laws can place on public institutions.

Because of the huge influx of Spanish speakers from south of the border, Hispanics now comprise about 40% of the population in Santa Barbara County, many of whom do not speak English. So, should we be required to print all government documents in both English and Spanish, teach school in Spanish, give civil service exams in Spanish, hire people who don’t speak English?

It’s not just about communication, although that’s certainly important. It’s also a pocketbook issue, about the economic impact that trying to accommodate multiple languages has on our society. U.S. English, Inc. offers some interesting facts that surely should be considered in any discussion of the “English Only” issue.

>”Since 1980, the number of U.S. residents who are limited English proficient has more than doubled, from 10.2 million to 21.3 million.” (Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

>”In 2000, 11.9 million U.S. residents lived in linguistically isolated households, meaning that no one in the household spoke English at home or spoke English ‘very well.'” (Source: U.S. Census Bureau)

>”Immigrants who speak English ‘not well’ or ‘not at all’ have median weekly earnings approximately 57 percent of those of U.S. born workers.”

>”Poverty and the need for public benefits, such as food stamps, are more closely related to limited English proficiency than with citizenship or legal status.”

>”The Canadian Government spends $260 million annually to do government business in both of the nation’s official languages.”

>”The cost of multilingual ballots and translations represented one-eighth of Los Angeles County’s $16 million expense in the Nov. 2004 general election.”

>”The City of San Francisco must spend $350,000 for each language that a document is translated into under the city’s bilingual government ordinance.”

>”79 percent of Americans, and 81 percent of first and second generation Americans favor making English the official language of the United States.”

>”Air Canada spends more than $9,265,000 per year conforming to Canada’s bilingualrequirements, requiring the airline to generate an additional $185,000,000 in additional sales to cover these costs.”

It’s clear that trying to accommodate all cultural groups costs big bucks. For example, the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences 1997 reported, “More than $100 million have been spent in the last 30 years to assess the value of bilingual education. Two startling conclusions made in the study include:

(1) There is no evidence that a program of native language instruction has greater benefits than any other type of education program and

(2) Teaching children to read in English first, instead of in their native tongue, has no negative consequences.” At that point the federal government was already spending $665 million a year on bilingual programs.

Furthermore, there are healthcare consequences for non-English or limited-English speakers. The Commonwealth Fund found that “limited English proficiency Latinos are 3-1/2 times more likely not to have had their blood pressure checked in the last five years, three times more likely not to have a dental exam in the last five years and twice as likely not have had their cholesterol checked in the last five years.”

Multi-language also means multicultural, and such societies often engender a view of their fellow citizens that can easily lead to strife among the various factions. “My culture and my language are better than yours” often becomes the unspoken mantra of those on all sides. But, is the Chinese culture better than Mexican? Or French better than English? Or Hmong better than Vietnamese? Or Japanese better than Italian, German, Russian, or Slovak?

We may not hear it verbalized very often, but it’s clearly present in the attitudes, beliefs, and relationships of the many ethnic groups that make up our population today. It’s only natural. People tend to associate with those who are more like themselves, instinctively understand them, have a common history, the same cultural values and attitudes, and no legislation can change that. The saying, “Birds of a feather flock together” describes this simple reality quite clearly.

In my opinion, passing laws to accommodate cultural and language differences merely accentuates the differences and tends to separate people. All too often, it engenders or increases hostility between groups, such as we see today between certain ethnic groups and with many of those Americans who support “English Only.”

It seems to me that the goal is, or should be, to integrate everyone who immigrates to our country to become as American as possible as quickly as possible. And, speaking English is the cornerstone for accomplishing this. The idea of labeling ourselves as hyphenated Americans that has become vogue in recent years is anathema to me. Why do we want to identify people as African-American, Italian-American, Irish-American, Mexican-American, Chinese or Japanese-American, etc.?

Theodore Roosevelt’s ideas on immigrants and being an American spoke to this issue very clearly in 1907: “In the first place, we should insist that if the immigrant who comes

here in good faith becomes an American and assimilates himself to us, he shall be treated on an exact equality with everyone else, for it is an outrage to discriminate against any such man because of creed, or birthplace, or origin. But this is predicated upon the person’s becoming

in every facet an American, and nothing but an American…There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn’t an American at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag…We have room for but one language here, and that is the English language… and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American people.”

So, what is the “English Only” movement all about? Quite simply, it’s about making English the official language of the United States. A bill to accomplish this (H.R. 997) was introduced in the House of Representatives in February of this year, and U.S. English, Inc. reports that it is supported by more than 80%of all Americans and almost two-thirds of Hispanics, according to polls taken in 2006.

Thirty states already have some sort of English only law and, to my knowledge, it hasn’t had any significant negative impacts in any of them.

“The English Language Unity Act of 2007 would require the United States government to conduct official business in English,” while still retaining the flexibility to permit or require that other languages be used to protect public health and safety, national security, or for the needs of commerce and the criminal justice system.

Some Facts about a Children on the Autism Spectrum

Every time parents are told that their child has been diagnosed with autism, they go throughturmoil of multiple emotions. Emotions that are a jumble of depression, denial, blame, sense of loss, shock and even guilt. A lot of times you feel like if only you knew the exact cause of the disorder, you could change something for your child.

Hundreds of researchers all across the globe are continuously researching the causes and reasons of children being born with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Although no specific reasons have been pin pointed at for triggering Autism Spectrum Disorder in newborn child, a number of observations have been made and proven related to autism. We are going to discuss some of them here. The cause is probably not one thing but a combination of factors.

First I would like to clear out some myths that are related to causes of autism. AutismSpectrum Disorder is not caused by bad parenting. As unacceptable as abusive parenting is, it does not cause autism. Another myth is that autism is caused by malnutrition in mother before or during pregnancy. Although it has been proven that vitamins can treat autism to a large extent, but malnutrition is not proven to be a reason. It is generally accepted that autism has ties with the gene pool of the child.

Autism is believed to have a connection with brain functions by most of the researchers. An observation about the relation between the brain and autism is that the brain of an autistic person is larger than the normal size, but that is all it is, an observation, not a cause. Another set of researches show that consumption of mercury forms, especially before and after conceiving has a lot to do with autism. Particularly the mercury in thimerosal, that works as a preservative in a number of childhood vaccines until recently. No one knows for sure what causes autism. As of now, there is no way to prevent or cure autism. All you can do is to try your best to understand and accommodate your child with ASD or Developmental disorder in his/her life with maximum possible ease.

A few observations about autistic children:

• They have a weak immune system.

• Autism is found more in male children, than female.

• A couple with an autistic child has a 5% chance of the next child also being autistic.

• If one child is autistic, there’s a 90% chance of its twin being autistic too.

Rebecca school is a special ed school is NYC. At Rebecca, we understand that every child on the Autism Spectrum has an individual set of needs, capabilities and strengths. Every child on autism spectrum needs a structure that is specially designed for him/her. Get in touch with Rebecca autism school and get a free tour. Through this tour you can observe the facility, as well as ongoing classes of our special need school in New York.

Teacher Education for Distance Education Teacher

Teacher Education for

Distance Education Teacher.

  1. Introduction -:

We find Open Universities and Distance Education Institutions in all  the Countries.  But we find no Teacher Education for Distance Education Teacher (DET) anywhere. The teachers in Convention Education System (CES) and Distance Education System (DES) perform different tasks. Therefore, the skills acquired for teaching in CES may not be useful in DES.  According to the Manual for Self-Study of Distance Education Institutions, published by National Assessment and Accreditation , Banglore. There are more than ten Open Universities in India, where we find  more than 20,00,000 students are studying and more than 50,000 Counsellors are serving. Every University has the Directorate of Distance Education. Every Open University has its study centres. The teachers, working there, are from CES. Sometimes lecturers are conducted on the name of counselling. Teacher is expected to find out the field need. He is not able to write a script for A/V production. We find him lacking in the skills required for DES. It leads the thought of teacher education for DES teacher.

2. Academic Task in DES and the Role of a Teacher.

Broadly speaking there are two distinct types of academic functions in DES.

  • Discipline based development of courses/programmes.
  • System development and delivery of service.

It includes preparation of learning packages, preparation and maintenance of courses including Audio/Video programs and planning, development of system and procedures including evaluation of students, and research into various aspects of the system itself includes the delivery of various services to students and evaluation of programs.

As it is quoted in the Report of The Committee on the Structure for the Academic and Student Support Services System of the University and the Pattern of its Staffing conducted by IGNOU, New Delhi, in DES, Teachers are necessary for imparting instruction or for preparing educational material of for conducting other academic activities including guidance, designing & delivery of courses, and evaluation of the work done by the students.

The DES requires the services of certain specialist personnel who may not be teachers of administrators in the traditional sense. They would be performing a wide spectrum of functions which combine managerial/administrative competence with academic sensitivity and understanding. The performance of such intermediate level functions and the development of a category of specialist personnel for the purpose is necessary for the success of the DES.

3. Skills required to perform the Tasks and to perform the Role of Teacher -:

The skills required for a DES teacher are different than that of CES teacher. In CES, face -to-face teaching -learning process is going on. Therefore, the teacher has to acquire teaching skills and various methods of teaching in face-to-face situation. But in DES, the learners are in remote places, and their age group is not same. They study at their sphere time and most of the time independently. Considering these factors, teacher in DES has to acquire certain skills. A teacher in DES may not use all these skills at a time but these will be used task wise. He may carry this task or that. Therefore, he has to acquire all these skills in Teacher Education. The list of skills are as given below, One may add other skills also. But these are core skills required for DES Teacher.

  • Skills for designing Courses/Programs.
  • Skills for preparation of meetings.
  • Skills for writing Course units & program guides.
  • Skills for proof reading.
  • Skills for content and language editing.
  • Skills for the designing of the cover-page of print material, including graphics & illustrations.
  • Skills for writing scripts for Audio and Video programs.
  • Skills for conducting orientation programs and workshops.
  • Skills for preparing, checking and monitoring the feedback of assignments.
  • Skills for bringing out revision of the courses/programs and bringing out completely new edition of courses.
  • Skills for preparation and production of Audio/Video program.
  • Skills for interacting with other agencies, especially heads of the Educational institutions and Managers of the Industries companies.
  • Skills for counseling advice and guidance to the students.
  • Skills for developing question banks and conducting Assessment programs.
  • Skills for evaluating the students’ performance.
  • Skills for evaluating the programs.
  • Skills for planning to develop the courses/programs.
  • Skills for Translation.
  • Skills for designing and development of training material.
  • Skills for Training and orientation of counsellors.
  • Skills for presenting a paper in a Seminars.
  • Skills for performing researches for the system development and for discipline based development of courses/ programs.
  • Skills for handling illustruments, new technology.
  • Skills for presenting radio and T.V. talks.
  • Skills for presenting lessons on virtual classroom and monitoring these class rooms.

4. Teacher Education for DES Teacher -:

No one denies to accept pre-service teacher training degrees/ certificates in teacher education as a qualification for seeking employment as a teacher. The teacher education may be imparted through CES or through DES. The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) accepts distance education as a useful and viable mode for training teachers presently serving in schools. This mode is also useful for providing training and continuing education support for other functionaries working in the school system, Thus, it is also useful for training the teacher in DES.

Teacher Education is a special requirement for a teacher in DES. One should acquire the skills to work as a teacher in DES. Though it can be given by CES, it is fruitful to start Teacher Education through DES. One should get a practical experiences to acquire the skills needed for him in DES.

5. Nature of Teacher Education for DES.

To implement Teacher Education through DES, it is necessary to decide programme components as given below.

  • Adequate amount of self-learning printed course-material in distance education format.
  • Provision for audio and video packages.
  • Regular assignments which are fully evaluated within stipulated time.
  • Internship provision and its duration.
  • Evaluation shall be comprehensive and continuous.
  • Duration.
  • Contact programs.
  • Practicals.
  • Eligibility.
  • Evaluation system.

The program components may be added by the Expert Committee called for the purpose.

6. Conclusion -:

Teacher Education is necessary not only for the teachers working in CES but also for the teachers working in DES. The skills required teachers working in DES are somewhat different from those of teachers working in CES. It is necessary to give special attention to acquire the skills for the teachers working in DES. There is no Teacher education available for training DES teachers, Therefore, the teachers working in the DES or the teachers who are going to work in the DES will welcome teacher education in this field.

References -:

(1) The Report of The Committee on the Structure for the Academic and Student Support Services System of the University and the Pattern of its Staffing Conducted by IGNOU, New Delhi.

(2) Manual for Self-Study of Distance Education Institutions, published by National Assessment and Accreditation 2/4 Dr. Raj Kumar Road, P. Office No. 1075, Rajajinagar, Banglore – 560 010

(3) Norms and Standards for Teacher Education Institutions; Published by National Council for Teacher Education, C-2/10, Safadarjung, Development Area, New Delhi.

(4) Comparative Chart of Open Universities in brief published by Distance Education Council, New Delhi.

(5) ‘Five Years Plans’ and ‘Annual Reports’ published by Y.C.M. Open University, Nashik.

Pre-schoolers with Special Needs

In today’s competitive world, when all of us expect our children to learn to read early and write sooner, pre-schools have become a trend. Parents put their children in as early as 2.5 years and expect their babbling child to be able to recite poems and recognize alphabets. Perhaps the common notion behind this is that a child who starts early will obviously come first in the rat race that contemporary curriculum has become. However, there is no substantial study to back that. In fact, pressurized learning before the required cognitive development can be more frustrating rather than useful and every child takes his own sweet time in achieving developmental milestones.

But does that mean a pre-school is useless for parents of special children?  Absolutely not!

There is much more to be learnt beyond ABC and the sooner it’s started the better it is. In a school, a child learns to take instruction, be cooperative, adapts to adult supervision, learn to interact with others and so on. And there is no doubt as to how crucial these skills are at a special school.

However, choosing the right special school where your child learns these qualities can be confusing. But a checklist always helps. Consult your doctor and discuss with him about what can be expected from your child by the term’s end. As each child responds differently to the same training, exact milestones would be impossible to quote for the doc as well. However, you can surely have a roadmap in place. This will help you stay positive and focused on the goals ahead. With special children, parents are always vulnerable to over-optimism or despair. So you would know what falls under encouragement and what crosses the line to pressurizing.

Then, you should consult within the family to plan the finances. Education and care facilities are lifetime expenditures, so make sure you plan it well in advance. There are several charitable schools as well which extend support to such children. So, once you have sorted this out you are ready to explore the special schools for disabled children in your area.

Then take a visit to the school and take a look at the infrastructure. Full time medical assistance, therapists, expert teachers, and training instruments should be available. Ask the authorities whether they have the required arrangement and staff to care for your child’s specific disorder. Moreover, the staff there should be compassionate and patient with the children. A visit to the school will be sufficient to help you decide whether it is the place for your child or not.

How to Become an Art History Teacher

3D Interior Rendering Company

Art History studies visual arts and their place in civilization through time. Associate in Nursing liberal arts teacher can ought to teach his students the importance of art-history, with relevancy painting, sculpture, photography, design and alternative sorts of art, in relevancy the political, social and non secular climates within which they were created. Associate in Nursing liberal arts major will give varied career choices, permitting careers as Associate in Nursing teacher, art professional, gallery keeper and additional, together with law, business or advertising.

To become Associate in Nursing liberal arts teacher, initial of all you’ll ought to earn a degree in liberal arts, Fine Arts or Education, concentrating in art or history. However, if you wish to show art-history at the faculty level, a degree won’t live up to. for school level, an M.A. or a PhD in art-history are going to be necessary. Also, you’ll ought to pass the teaching competence exams and basic skills tests needed by your state, thus your will earn a certification. the necessities could vary from one state to a different, however typically teaching licenses are going to be granted solely to those that have with success completed a Bachelor’s program at Associate in Nursing licensed school. thus so as to become Associate in Nursing liberal arts teacher, you’ll got to earn the degree, a teacher’s education degree approved by your state, and, of course, pass all tests needed by the state. it should be a decent plan to stay copies of all of your school transcripts and check scores.

However, you’ll not become Associate in Nursing art-history teacher simply because you’ve got a degree. To become Associate in Nursing art-history teacher, you’ll got to build some sturdy art skills in an exceedingly wide selection of subject areas, as you’ll got to show each information and skill in many areas, together with history, digital art and style. necessary qualities embody an excellent attention to detail, the power to develop sensible visual information, self discipline, visual discrimination skills, sensible individuals skills, patience, nice organization and analysis skills, important thinking, writing skills and plenty of others. Being Associate in Nursing liberal arts teacher is a crucial responsibility, and also the job is kind of complicated. however if you like art-history and you wish to depart this world your information to others, being Associate in Nursing liberal arts teacher are often terribly profitable.

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Besides all of your theoretical education within the field of art-history, do not overlook the new technology. Learn to use it proficiently, as a result of it’ll are available handy in your lectures. PowerPoint, Flickr or photo-editing packages can permit you to show liberal arts in an exceedingly easy and economical manner.

In teaching art-history, you’ll ought to concentrate additional on the study of theories and also the history of art, instead of creating art. Also, detain mind that have is often essential to any or all prospective employers, thus you will wish to do a year-long office or substitute teaching to make a solid skilled expertise in liberal arts. With a correct skilled background, finding a permanent position as Associate in Nursing art-history teacher are going to be easier.

Teacher Professional Development Via Online Graduate Courses for Teachers

There are a number of options for teachers searching for online graduate courses. Online graduate courses for teachers can be used for continuing education (CEUs), in-service credit, or graduate credit. Teacher professional development via these online graduate courses can be put towards a salary increase, license recertification, or other forms of job advancement. Many universities offer online graduate courses for teachers, especially in teacher professional development.

There are a number of benefits to approaching teacher professional development through online courses. For the teachers, these courses can help them meet state requirements, they can get raises, and (most importantly!) they can learn skills and methods of teaching that they can use immediately in the classroom. For the school districts and states, online courses also have a host of advantages. Online teacher professional development allows teachers to spend less time commuting to classes and more time preparing and working in the classroom. Often online options are less expensive as well, so whether the district or the teacher is paying, money is saved. It’s easier for school districts to monitor the certification process (initially and ongoing).

Through online graduate courses for teachers school districts can help their educators develop the skills necessary to excel and provide the students with the best education possible. These courses have a variety of ways to measure competence as well. Since these courses can be offered for all teachers at a school, they can even discuss the materials learned in a discussion environment if the school wants to set up a time for that. By working together, teachers still get an interactive education from online teacher professional development.

Some of the most common trouble areas that schools face in terms of teacher professional development are: 1) developing a basic framework for how to teach, 2) communication between teachers and administration about what exactly the teachers need, 3) teaching ESL students, and 4) effectively teaching students that are not the norm – underachievers, gifted students, and special education. Other topics that are often the subject of teacher professional development have to do with technology – integrating technology in the classroom, using technology to simplify grading and creating assignments, making websites for classes so that students have up to date information, and learning how to teach these students that are so immersed in technology constantly.

It should be noted that in addition to professional development, teachers can also get other graduate credit online as well as completing entire Master’s of Education programs online. There are options for just about everything. Many online programs also have agreements with local schools so that teachers have access to materials and technology that they might not already have. These agreements can be very helpful for teachers taking online courses.

If a school district is looking for a solution to teacher professional development, online graduate courses for teachers may be a very good opportunity to take advantage of. Teachers can meet state requirements and enhance their skillsets; they can also interact with other teachers in their district who are taking the same programs.

The Socioeconomic Impact of Charters Schools in Texas



              Due to the decline in the quality of public education in Texas, state lawmakers passed legislation in 1995. The new law permitted the opening and implementation of charter schools. These new charters schools encourage and support innovative teaching for a variety of learning styles, improve the achievement of students, and provide options within the public school system (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). Prior to the new legislation, there was no opportunity for choice within the public school system with regard to a child’s education, and children attended school according to their zip code. That deficiency began to change when the first charter school in Texas opened in the fall of 1996.

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) reports that the “first generation” of charters consisted of 17 schools and had a collective population of 2,412 students. Legislation initially limited open-enrollment charters to 20 schools; however, lawmakers increased the cap to 100 schools in 1997 and to 215 schools in 2001 (Story 2007, 1). As of 2007, Texas had one of the largest and most flexible charter school programs in the United States (Story 2007, 1). Currently, Texas charter schools serve over 113,000 students, an estimated two percent of all public school students.  Moreover, of those 113,000 students in charter schools, 80 percent are minority and 60 percent are economically disadvantaged students (Terry and Alexander 2008, 7).

Research Analysis-Lifting the Cap:

The State of Texas currently has 210 active open-enrollment charter schools.  In addition, Texas will likely reach the cap of 215 open-enrollment charter schools by 2009. If the cap remains in place, many parents and children will be at a disadvantage, unable to choose the best quality education for their families. Many charter education supporters have and will continue to push for greater parental control and increased accountability with an emphasis on improved public relations. However, these supporters encounter a lot of resistance, because opponents see charter schools as competition to the public schools.  Consequently, increased restrictions and mandates stifle charter school growth.

If the Texas government and the education policy stakeholders review the statistical findings and evaluate the impact of open-enrollment charter schools in Texas, they will find a clear picture of the positive outcomes charter schools provide. It becomes apparent through the examination of the economic and social factors of open-enrollment charter schools that lifting the cap on the number of open-enrollment charter schools in Texas would be beneficial to the current public school system.

Contrary to common public perception, charter schools are public schools.  Similar to public schools, charter schools cannot charge tuition according to state law. However, “charter schools have a significant amount of autonomy and are free to be innovative in educational and administrative practices,” as stated on the Resource Center for Charter Schools (Technology Help for Administrators 2008).  Before a charter school in Texas breaks ground, the entity must submit a proposal, similar to a business proposal, for approval, which typically includes a mission statement, a philosophy and a vision. Furthermore, the proposal provides information regarding basic logistics, including class size, number of school daysand hours, the programs that will service students and a projected budget. On many occasions, charter schools seek the help of outside agencies to provide guidance, classroom modeling, in-house training, and resources in order to assist in achieving the mission. For example, an open-enrollment charter school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania used a research based program / agency from San Francisco, California called the “Developmental Studies Center” (DSC). The DSC trained the faculty, provided resources and provided ongoing support in order to achieve the school’s mission and goal. In fact, the school bases its philosophy on a democratic model that gives students a voice, which promotes and fosters the students’ academic, social, and emotional growth. Significantly, this school recognizes the existence of multiple intelligences and diverse learning styles. One program that addresses the choice of students and multiple intelligences is the choice of electives for all of the student population once a week. They also incorporate a “service learning program” to assist in molding stewards of the community (Service Learning Programs, 2008).

Similarly, in Houston, Texas, “KIPP (Knowledge is Power Program) Academy Houston,” whose mission is to “help…students develop academic skills, intellectual habits, and qualities of character necessary to succeed in high school, college, and the competitive world beyond” is a very successful charter school that services grades 5-8 (U.S. Department of Education 2008).  Texas recognized it as an “exemplary school” every year since 1996, and the U.S. Department of Education recognized it as a “Blue Ribbon” school. The dedication of its teachers and administrators, including being on call by way of cell phone 24/7 to address the academic needs of students led to this success of the charter school (U.S. Department of Education 2008).  This innovative dedication would not be something conducive to the public school sector.  In view of the fact that employees of mainstream public schools, are subject to collective bargaining and union contracts, have set hours and specific responsibilities in their contracts and do not deviate from them.

By employing the flexibility of the charter program and by working outside the traditional eight hours of instructional time for students, the American Youth Works in Austin, Texas is a charter school that is able to better focus on the unique needs of its students. The school allows students half a day to pursue employment opportunities, to participate in work study programs or to take care of family members, including the students’ own children. The school requires the students to fulfill only four hours of traditional instructional time in order to accommodate the individual’s life experience (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4).

Other charter schools may extend the school day in order to improve academic achievement or may extend the school year to expose the students to supplemental material and expanded learning. Equally important, a mission aimed at addressing the varied learning styles through the theory of multiple intelligences may be the goal of another charter school. There are even charter schools that focus on the arts, architecture and design, leadership, and literacy. Charter schools generally do not fit the traditional model of the mainstream public school; instead, they find ways to educate children and stimulate learning based on innovative ideas and strategies.

When a charter is operating, the entity will receive direct funding from the state and the federal government. However, charters do not receive funding for their facilities, so it is up to the charter school to raise money, solicit donations, apply for startup grants from the federal government or choose to borrow from private lenders (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5).

Terry states, in a “GO San Angelo” article, that charter schools may not charge tuition, teach religion, discriminate, or cherry-pick students (Terry 2008, 1). To elaborate, if a charter school encourages families to volunteer 20 hours of their time to help with various needs of the school such as painting, helping in the classroom, making packets, cleaning, etc., the school cannot in any way enforce this as a “requirement.” If a family is penalized in any way, such as a student being removed from school for incompletion of hours, it would be considered payment for education. Moreover, charter schools may not discriminate in the enrollment of students or cherry-pick, select a student based on academic performance, behavior, or other preferential selection, its admissions..

Charter schools require different regulations compared to traditional public schools (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). An example is that charter schools, as opposed to mainstream public schools, require teachers to provide parents and guardians of students in their school with a written notice of their qualifications. Another example of the differences in regulation is under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Federal Regulation Part 300, which reauthorizes the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA). Originally, law required charter schools to provide and complete academic testing for a child within 60 school days from the date of a request from a parent or guardian, while it required traditional public schools to provide and complete the same within 60 calendar days.  Under the reauthorization, the requirement changed to 60 school days for both public and charter schools. Before this became universal for both mainstream public and charter schools, it was a disadvantage for the charter schools to adhere to the time restraint because it was more difficult in terms of the high cost of academic testing and limited funding.

To be sure, accountability is universal for district public schools and charter schools, as the pressure of No Child Left Behind impacts both sectors of education. Both are required to administer standardized tests, and all students must test at their current grade level rather than their level of ability. For instance, an eighth grader who is reading at a third grade level must take the eighth grade reading standardized test.

According to the article “Texas Charter Schools: An Assessment in 2005”, produced by the Texas Public Policy Foundation, “when student performance is evaluated on the basis of test scores, students in Texas charter schools perform on the average lower than do students in traditional public schools. However, when changes in test scores are used to judge performance, academic gains by charter school students can be demonstrated” (Patterson 2005, 5). This means that even though some charter school students’ performance does not exceed the performance of traditional public schools according to standardized test results, the students are individually making better academic progress in the charter schools. In addition, because most charter schools typically specialize in helping disadvantaged youth, many students in charter schools identify as an at-risk population for dropping out of school and come from low income homes which could hinder their test performance (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). Accordingly, basing decisions of success on standardized test scores is an unfair assessment of charter school performance.

Currently, the government enforces some regulation on charter schools that forces them to shut down if they have two consecutive years of undesirable performance, which typically measures by standardized test scores. This is harsher and inequitable compared to the five years allowed for the mainstream public school districts (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). For example, a charter school may be able to improve a fifth grade student whose reading level is equivalent to third grade but still fail with unacceptable performance because the student failed the fifth grade Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test reading section (Terry and Alexander 2008, 1).

During the 2007-2008 school years, 113,760 students enrolled in charter schools in Texas, and an estimated 16,810 students were on a waiting list (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). Houston’s regional charter school’s waiting list was the largest at 7,415 students; coming in second was the Dallas / Fort Worth region at 5,896 students, and Rio Grand Valley had 2,110 students.  Furthermore, the Austin region had a waiting list of 623; the Corpus Christi region had a waiting list of 159; and the San Antonio region had a waiting list of 488 students (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). According to Robelen, since these numbers stem from a survey in which only half of the schools participated, the actual number of students on a waiting list for charter schools in Texas is likely higher (Robelen 2008, 1).

The large number of students on the waiting lists for charter school enrollment demonstrates the significant demand for educational options, which is the fundamental purpose of the legislation for charter schools. The rapidly growing number of students on waiting lists demonstrates the need for lawmakers to lift the cap limiting the number of charter schools in Texas.  When a charter school has more applicants than they can allow, an enrollment lottery determines which students will be attending the upcoming school year.  Terry asks readers to “imagine parents, whose child is trapped in a low-performing public school, crying for joy that their child is randomly selected to attend a school with a track record of serving at-risk students with innovative strategies” (Terry 2008, 1). On the other hand, one can imagine the cries of a parent whose child is a student in a low-performing public school when their child looses the enrollment lottery.

There are four different types of charter schools: open-enrollment charters, district charters, university charters, and home-rule district charters. Open-enrollment charter schools service the largest population, 89,156 students as of the 2007-2008 school year. Open-enrollment charters are by definition independent school units and can have multiple campuses. The school district operates the district charter schools that consisted of 23,275 students in the 2007-2008 school years. University charters are generally in operation at public senior university or college and consisted of 1,329 students attending 19 different university charter schools in 2007-2008. Furthermore, a home-rule charter means districts have the ability to convert into charter school status which includes an extensive voting process. There is no cap on the number of district charters; however, there are no home-rule charter schools operating in Texas (Terry and Alexander 2008, 3).

Open enrollment charter schools do not drain financial resources from mainstream public schools because they do not receive state funding. In fact, the excess money in the state education budget applies to the student’s home district and the neighboring school where the child resides. For example, in the 2005-2006 school year, the cost per student in Texas was $9,629; charter schools were given approximately $1,500 less per student (Terry and Alexander, 2008a, 1). Thus, operating a charter school saves the district money in educating a child because charter schools expend less money per child.

Because charter schools receive less money per student compared to mainstream school districts in Texas, it is necessary for charter schools to incorporate fund raising into their fiscal plans. Moreover, charter school fundraising brings more dollars into the public sector.  According to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, in Illinois the total of public and private funding for charter schools brought in a total of $11 million dollars to help educate the youth. In addition, charter schools introduce new resources into public education. Grants provide funds designed for charter schools phases such as, planning, development, and initial implementation which are not available to the public school system if charter schools were not in existence (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

It is incorrect for the districts in Texas to believe that charter schools negatively impact their bottom line or hinder their budgetary plan. In the event of the opening of a new charter school, the state provides the district with short term financial aids in order to prevent an impact on the school district revenue (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008). Because charter schools typically enroll a diverse student body with a variety of characteristics, the fiscal impact is a factor of enrollment only (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008). In addition, public and charter schools receive a percentage of money for students with disabilities; therefore, the public district receives an even higher amount than the $1,500 per special education student.  Finally, socioeconomic factors dictate funding for individual students and services offered (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

Districts can easily reduce expenses to adapt to charter schools. The National Alliance for Charter Schools, reports that school districts can often adjust to student enrollment fluctuations-where there may be some key adjustments the first year, the following years have little to no impact on the school district (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).   The National Alliance for Charter Schools also believes that if a charter school is thriving, and the district cannot adjust to the fluctuation in enrollment, it is likely due to the district’s own failed policies and rules (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

Charter schools in Texas increase the employment of teachers in the district as well. Many teachers struggle to obtain a teaching position once they graduate and charter schools open the doors for many of these qualified teachers to find a job in education. The state law only requires teachers to be state certified to work in a charter school if they specialize in special education or bilingual education (Terry and Alexander 2008a, 6). The state government in Texas does not require charter schools to employ certified teachers, but many choose to do so, especially with the shortage of teaching opportunities. Story supports this by stating statistics that show charter schools employ 26 percent of new teachers in the field compared to traditional public schools, which employ a mere 7 percent respectively (Story 2007, 3). In addition, charter schools can impact the traditional school district in a positive way by reducing the need for districts to hire new teachers by eliminating overcrowding, which reduces the average cost of hiring and training a new teacher, estimated to be about $8,000 per teacher (The National Alliance for Charter Schools 2008).

The impact of charter schools in the community’s economic and social growth is rapidly increasing. As stated earlier, charter schools do not receive funding for facilities from the state, however the districts that have charters schools receive and excess of approximately $1,500 per student that attends a charter school.  Therefore, without the funding for a facility, charter schools renovate, remodel and/or rehabilitate existing property within a community in order to accommodate students. Having a charter school residing in a neighborhood has the potential to generate tax revenue and increase the value of real estate (National Alliance for Public Charter Schools 2008).

The National Alliance for Public Charter Schools also suggests that if charter schools are successful in educating students, it can reduce the dropout rate in high schools and increase college admissions and graduates. Texas seems to have a high dropout rate, and those students who graduate do not have the communication and math skills necessary for college and require remedial math and reading programs to qualify for admission to college (Terry and Alexander 2008, 4). One of the most successful schools in Texas is a charter school that reduced their dropout rates dramatically under the direction of the mission of their charter.

These charter schools often provide a safe haven for youth by providing aftercare and tutoring. Importantly, charter schools often give communities a sense of pride. Many charter schools offer Boy Scouts of America, sports, and other programs in order to facilitate teambuilding, self esteem, and help foster a sense of community, and growth in a child. Some charter schools open their doors for tutoring and mentoring on Saturdays to offer extra assistance as well as a safe setting for young learners. However, these programs are uncommon in the traditional public school district setting mostly because of the contract and collective bargaining processes of the districts. Charter schools have the ability to add the extra touches that impact students without the political constraints that traditional district schools face.

While charter schools do not seem like they would pose a significant threat to the financial operations of the public school system in Texas, there are some risks associated with the existence of charter schools. Because most charter schools operate like a business, there is a risk of misappropriation and improper allocation of funds. In addition, misconduct of administrators, teachers, and entities involved with a particular charter school could lead to a negative reputation of charter schools as a whole. However, limiting the number of charter schools based on isolated incidents of illegal activity, inappropriate behavior or misuse of power could prove to be harmful to the education system. Misconduct can develop in any entity, including public school districts.

Research shows that students from a traditional public school who attend charter schools for a period of two or three years improve more rapidly than students in the traditional public school district (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). Not using a growth based system to measure the amount of growth, a student is able to obtain in the course of a year in the state accountability system is causing charter school to seem deficient (Terry and Alexander 2008, 5). Research from the “Texas Charter Schools: An Assessment in 2005” produced by the Texas Public Policy Foundation, shows that students who left traditional public schools to attend charter schools performed better on average than they would have if they were still attending the traditional public school (Patterson 2004, 32). Thus, the correlation of charter schools and student achievement is significant, and students will benefit from the removal of the charter school cap in Texas.

Charter schools provide competition with the mainstream district schools which provides an unwanted positive impact on the district schools. It forces district schools to exhibit more accountability of staff and teachers and puts pressure on them to increase student performance. If the schools are functioning at low levels, parents or guardians will feel the need to remove their child from the district school by applying to a charter school. If lawmakers remove the cap and more options are available to parents and guardians, more choices for education will be accessible to students and parents. In addition, the competition between charter schools and public schools will cause school districts to increase their overall academic performance.

Patterson asserts the bottom line for charter schools in Texas as follows:

Charter schools are a valuable alternative to traditional public schools (Patterson 2005, 1).

Charters are especially effective with disadvantaged students (Patterson 2005, 1).

Charters challenge traditional public schools to improve student performance (Patterson 2005, 1).

Charters do a better job with high school students and alternative education programs (Patterson 2005, 1).


The benefits a charter school can provide to the district public schools, parents, students, and the community significantly outweighs any negative impact charters may cause. The Texas legislature should eliminate the cap of 215 charter schools which prevents charter schools to operate in a free market (Terry and Alexander, 2008, 1). The 16,810 or more students on the waiting lists for charter schools prove the demand for charter schools. This demand, viewed in light of the current issues facing traditional public schools, proves that charter schools are working well in improving the quality of education. Many education analysts believe that the quality of a charter school education will increase overtime. Unless this demand meets the supply, tens of thousands of students will remain in an environment that may not promote academic, emotional or social growth. Equally important, these students will not thrive in their current placement and could regress to the extent of becoming an at-risk youth who could potentially drop out of high school, leading to a grim future. This proposed reform of lifting the cap could be an immense opportunity for Texas to become a leader in the charter school movement. The Texas public school system could stop the increase of real estate taxes to invest money in failing districts and make the choice to provide additional educational resources for the children of the state.

            The bureaucracy that places a barrier to student learning and student performance is unconscionable. A simple solution to the education crisis Texas is facing would be to lift the cap while continuing to monitor all educational institutions. It is in the best interests of the child to allow parents and guardians to make the choice of where their child should attend school to get the best free, appropriate public education possible. The main purpose of the charter school legislation in 1995 was to give that choice to Texas citizens. That freedom no longer exists for thousands of citizens in Texas because of the cap on charter schools. Given the overwhelming evidence that charter schools are socioeconomically beneficial, lawmakers in Texas should increase or remove the cap altogether and make charter schools available to all of its citizens in 2009.

Bilingual Education in America with Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission

The School is an inquisitive place for language. In it there is a mixture of languages including mother tongues, foreign languages, etc. When you look at all these languages together you can say that the school is possibly the only place where they can come across each other in all their variance and imbrications.


Success is not a separated thing and includes many elements including academics, Saudi Arabian cultural mission value strengthening, modification to the main stream culture and the growth of self-esteem. So, it is helping the whole student to make better, grow and develop. We use the primary language English and Saudi Arabian cultural mission as a foundation for development of the second language and adaptation to the American culture.


But, we need to be attentive and take advantage of this wonderful diversity. On a daily basis you can interact and see students from around the world at uceda. A student from Saudi Arabia is holding a conversation with Japanese and next to them maybe a student from Korea speaking to a student from Brazil all holding conversations in English. We are not incorporating our diversity of people and languages as we should in our educational system. A by product is that our growing number of students in our school system that communicate a primary language other than English are also present.


Educational success for the bilingual student should be our goal, to assist the student to develop from where they are when they enter the classroom toward academic proficiency of both languages. It is true that in America the English language educational skills are regular and are what the student requires to finally succeed in this society. The truth is that improvement in both languages upholds success.


The effect that the program or school has on its students is the real evaluation of success.Academic programs or schools are approved to reach goals. Prosperous academic programswill also guide each student to grow, but they must also help the bilingual students to expand in the primary language to attain those goals.  To assist them to grow in the primary language is to obtain them and authenticate their culture thereby introducing self-esteem and taking care of an environment of incorporation. Every student has a right to get quality education and it is the honorable responsibility of our organization at uceda. to prove that for every student.


For more details regarding the course structure, you can freely contact us at any time. We would love to assist you at any point of time.

Obama Grants ‘moms Return To School’ Government Scholarships

Are you aware that the new U.S. government is intent on assisting single and stay-at-home mothers who are interested in pursuing their college degrees? Obama is offering “Moms Return to School” Government Scholarship Grant designed to help out mothers who want to pursue their college educations. Although a lot of fulltime moms do not know that this special educational grant exists, interested applicants will be better informed if they find out everything they need to know about this government scholarship.

The country’s economy may be in bad shape, but now is the perfect time to go back to school and get that college degree, especially for stay-at-home mothers. Once the economy bounces back to normal, as it usually does, you have already incurred the necessary skills and credentials by finishing your college education. You will then be prepared and properly equipped to get that dream job opportunity when it comes. Getting that education right now is the perfect timing for job opportunities that will be available once the country’s economy is back on track.

There are many kinds of Scholarships and Grants that are available now. The Federal Pell Grants is one of the first bills introduced by Obama. But now, this scholarship grant offers more funding than before, and this is suitable for students with low income. Instead of the monetary grant of only $4050, it has now been increased to a maximum of $5100, with the prospect of raising this amount some more in the future. This is one of the best ways to get that college degree, especially for single moms who want to go back to school. It is easy to apply for this grant, just choose a school that you want to go to, and be certain that this university or college offers the course or curriculum that you want to study. You can then fill out and submit the necessary deferral FAFSA form.

Plus, there are also tax benefits for student mothers. It is important for you to know that your first $4,000 expense for higher education is free as stated in The American Opportunity Tax Credit Program.

Are you aware that the new U.S. government is intent on assisting single and stay-at-home mothers who are interested in pursuing their college degrees? Obama is offering “Moms Return to School” Government Scholarship Grant designed to help out mothers who want to pursue their college educations. Although a lot of fulltime moms do not know that this special educational grant exists, interested applicants will be better informed if they find out everything they need to know about this government scholarship.

The country’s economy may be in bad shape, but now is the perfect time to go back to school and get that college degree, especially for stay-at-home mothers. Once the economy bounces back to normal, as it usually does, you have already incurred the necessary skills and credentials by finishing your college education. You will then be prepared and properly equipped to get that dream job opportunity when it comes. Getting that education right now is the perfect timing for job opportunities that will be available once the country’s economy is back on track.

There are many kinds of Scholarships and Grants that are available now. The Federal Pell Grants is one of the first bills introduced by Obama. But now, this scholarship grant offers more funding than before, and this is suitable for students with low income. Instead of the monetary grant of only $4050, it has now been increased to a maximum of $5100, with the prospect of raising this amount some more in the future. This is one of the best ways to get that college degree, especially for single moms who want to go back to school. It is easy to apply for this grant, just choose a school that you want to go to, and be certain that this university or college offers the course or curriculum that you want to study. You can then fill out and submit the necessary deferral FAFSA form.

Should you choose to continue your college education through online studies, you can definitely do it through Obama’s “Moms Return to School” Government Grant Scholarship program. Completing your college education online is now one of the more popular choices for mothers, so you can still stay home and care for their kids while studying to get your degree.

Should you choose to continue your college education through online studies, you can definitely do it through Obama’s “Moms Return to School” Government Grant Scholarship program. Completing your college education online is now one of the more popular choices for mothers, so you can still stay home and care for their kids while studying to get your degree.

There are still more options are available if you are intent on going back to school, you just have to find the one that will best suit you. There are other scholarship grants that offer even more financial aid than that of the Federal Pell Grant, grants that are made especially for single and full time mothers like you!

Grab the opportunity to get a $10,000 scholarship award for mothers; you can be a back-to-school mom in no time at all! Dads are welcome to apply too so do not blow this opportunity.

There are still more options are available if you are intent on going back to school, you just have to find the one that will best suit you. There are other scholarship grants that offer even more financial aid than that of the Federal Pell Grant, grants that are made especially for single and full time mothers like you!

Grab the opportunity to get a $10,000 scholarship award for mothers; you can be a back-to-school mom in no time at all! Dads are welcome to apply too so do not blow this opportunity.

Apply Education Pell Grants Programs

Apply Education Pell Grants Programs – Pell Federal grants

You’ll find methods lower the volume of college loans you need. When you’re approved at a certified college or university or city college, consult with the financial aid department. There are lots of scholarships and additionally grants which are based upon cash flow and may make it possible don’t demand as high  college students financial loan. Visit to –

All the Pell grant belongs to the government services virtually all colleges quickly file for college students. The highest grant is over 5 thousand dollars. Nevertheless, not all college students will receive the highest amount. A lot of elements are viewed whenever a student applies. With couple of exclusions, part time student have to be taking at the very least a 50 % of time pack. One other thing that is considered is the precise university or college costs for equally college tuition and novels.

Compared with  college student financial loan, a fabulous Pell grant is actually that, a fabulous grant. It is under no circumstances returned. It is up to individual association regarding how cash is used. You can choose to receive a check or get it implemented instantly to your college costs. The variety of possibilities would be spoken about within student and financial aid officer. National law requested funds to be generated no less than twice in every academic year.

One more issue to look at whenever requesting a Pell federal is the kind of school. State universities and colleges in many cases are more cost effective when compared with exclusive faculties. Pell grants are accessible to Colleges or universities, exclusive universities and community institutions. The community university program is normally the most affordable and can be used to bring in Associate degrees and provide the majority of the ‘tokens’ then be used to a fabulous four-year institution. Using thePell federal grant to pay some of these costs the student can thus attain a college degree that can be used to secure career that can afterward be used to the ongoing training process.

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Teachers’ Perception and Attitudes towards Teaching as a Profession


Work is a hard word to define. Most of the definitions refer to useful, prolific activity, and the effort by which someone earns a living. People work to gain an identity.  Identity is the way to enjoy using their skills and talents and also enjoy working hard to improve those skills. A job is a collection of responsibilities that one agrees to perform for an employer. A profession is actually a collection of jobs involving similar tasks.

In Pakistan, parents usually plan the prospective professions for their children. However, the rising graph of un-employment leaves no choice for literate people but to agree to avail the opportunity for earning in the closer field. The happiest and most successful people are those who do plan. In learning organizations, people believe in the work ethics. And people’s attitude is their basic stance on life.

In recent times, there has been a growing interest for teaching to be considered as a corporate profession in private sector of Lahore, which demands to introduce not only qualified but also well-equipped teachers into teaching industry. In Lahore, where there are opportunities offered to qualified professionals to serve in diverse fields, people are intending to join teaching as a life-career exclusive of adequate teaching skills. However, teaching young children has traditionally be seen as having far more to do with inculcating acceptable standards of behaviour and conformity’ (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 41). Piaget and Vygotsky illuminate the responsibility of adults in the “context of learning” and “social interaction” (Alfrey, 2003). Therefore, certainly teachers’ role become more challenging and demanding as they are considered to be well organized with teaching skills and have certain level of teaching autonomy rather than being ‘in authority’ or ‘an authority’ in the learning process (Peters, 1967).

Only those people can take on the passionate responsibilities of transforming children into good citizens who plan teaching as a career and are sufficiently prepared with teaching skills, which indicates the importance of development of adequate skills, dedication to teaching and a determination for continuous growth and learning (Arshad 1993, cited in Hussain, 2004). For that reason, it is required to ensure that children are developed and taught by highly committed professional teachers. Hence, earlier discussion establishes that teaching with commitment results in the children’s development in a creative manner for life-long learning.

Distant learning and regular morning and evening programme of teacher education are being offered by public and private sectors vocational training institutes and universities in Lahore. Hussain (2004) raises the point that teacher [education] is not the only factor that has to be obligatory for [in-service] and prospective teachers but also an aptitude towards teaching is an inevitable feature to look forward to. Due to a significant discrepancy in the curriculum and teaching methodology in both sectors, it would seem that such investigations are needed in order to reflect on in-service teachers’ perception of teaching as a profession in teachers of private sector in Lahore.


Mary Kelly, former chairperson of the Australian Teaching Council (ATC), an organization that systematically outlines the changing nature of teachers’ work and encourages recognition of that work both industrially and professionally, noted that:

‘Without our teachers and schools, there would be no process whereby … citizens could participate in a common experience based on common values.’

Kelly, 1996, p.1

Social Cohesion

Societies in Lahore have combinations of various interest groups with different beliefs and values and with different professional background, for instance, businessmen, government employees, workers and managers from private sector, engineers, doctors etc. Educational aims, therefore, are set to cater for education to the children of various social groups. The overall educational aim of an educational system is to equip young generation with problem-solving and critical thinking skills for their practical life to promote ‘Social Cohesion’ … to live together harmoniously and with self-respect (Winch & Gingell, 1999, p.222).

Schools of Thought

Education systems in Lahore have been emphasizing on quality education by engaging qualified personnel; however, Winch & Gingell (1999) believe that educational aim is not explicitly exposed to everyone. From overarching umbrella of academia, each education system has adopted a particular learning theory and designed its own curriculum. Though, for educators it remains contested that ‘Why to Teach?’, ‘What to Teach?’ and ‘How to Teach? Besides educational aim, teachers are [less] encouraged to have any orientation or aptitude to join teaching as a profession in private schools so they are considered just a replaceable item that may be retained in school until another suitable teacher joins (Singh and Rana, 2000, p.161-162).

Singh and Rana (2002) define a historic teacher who … explained the meaning of human existence … while a modern teacher is someone divine in human form. Research shows that a good teacher possesses knowledge, skills to communicate and understand, a positive attitude towards profession, personal competency to use abilities to produce a socially agreed upon result, and professional competencies (Singh and Rana, 2002, p. 4). The qualities of an effective teacher are a blend of attributes and pedagogical skills, which endorse quality learning in ordinary conditions (Boylan, Battersby, Wallac, & Retallick, 1991; Brookfield, 1995; Cullingford, 1995; Hill & Hawk, 1998; Ramsay & Oliver, 1994; and Ramsden, 1992 cited in McGee & Fraser, 2005). Personal traits of effective teachers include treating students with respect, being compassionate and confidential, having a sense of humour, acting in a just and fair manner and be friendly but firm (McGee & Fraser, 2005). Furthermore, it was believed that … childhood teaching required similar skills to those associated with child rearing [i.e. women’s work] (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 41). They suggest that teachers’ work is to concern with patterns of behaviour in our society and their consequences for young [children, whether boys or girls]. In addition, consciousness of oneself, attentiveness to others, ability to communicate and collaborate with others, resourcefulness, openness to change, understanding of cultural dimensions, analytical ability of educational systems and their impact on learning milieu and sense of self-confidence (Melnick & Zeichner, 1998). Teachers will therefore be appreciated not only for their knowledge and purely technical skills but also for their personal qualities (Tedesco, 1996, p. 1). However, there are teachers who ‘make their life easier at the cost of others’ (Singh and Rana, 2002, p. 64-65).

Teaching means to make someone learn. The quality of learning is directly proportional to the quality of teaching. For quality learning, ‘each teacher must identify and voice his or her own vision … which will foster students’ growth (McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 76-77). They also, suggest teachers to have well-defined learning goals … to make very precise decisions about the kinds of learning wanted and [to] share these goals with students. Busher and Saran (1995, P. 40) suggest that teacher has to ‘be available for work, for planning, delivery and performance. Moreover, the teacher’s role is changing from that of instructor to that of a leader of learning. Increasingly, the teacher is being asked to teach students how to learn, to solve problems, to analyse and so on, so as to become life-long learners (Kelly, 1996, p.1).

Occupation is trade, profession or type of work performed by an individual, independent of the worker’s industry, status or years of experience (Singh and Rana, 2002, p.148); in addition, they have pointed out two additional attributes of a profession – it is bound by its own declared ethics and supervised by its own people (p.65). A profession is a guild of practitioners … because they possess and are master of knowledge base that is sufficiently esoteric (Strike, 1993, p. 257). McGee & Fraser define the term ‘professional teacher’ as a teaching activity that is widely practised in the community (2005, p. 274)  however, [professional teacher] are publicly accredited to teach and fulfil public, rather than private, teaching functions (Goodlad, 1990 cited in McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 274). Teachers are smartly replaced like other industries if [they] do not adjust to [a] much sharper view of the world … in the service industry (Ramsey, 2000, p. 12). Teaching in ‘education industry’ emphasising on ‘individual rights’ (McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 277) of what Rishworth (1999, p. 4) states as ‘education law’. Downie (1990) suggests that the attitude of tuism [taking account of you] is an ideal characteristic of all the helping professions, including teaching (cited in McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 277). In addition, teaching as ‘community of practice’, called as ‘guild’ by scholars in England (Lave and Wenger, 1991).

The role perception indicates how training influences a teacher’s profession as a whole, the difference that he finds before and after training to understand what his duty should be – only to teach, only to provide information, only to influence students or to do something beyond these activities (Singh and Rana, 2002, p.147). Government of Pakistan emphasises that if teachers are well-trained and highly motivated, learning will be enhanced (quoted in Hussain, 2004).

In addition, improvement of the profession of education lies in the hands of teacher education (Govt. of Pakistan, 1997 cited in Hussain, 2004). ‘Professionalism’ is regarded as benefiting the practitioners and ‘professionality’, a term coined to refer to professional activity aimed at benefiting students (Hoyle, 1975). Hoyle differentiates between extended professionality that leads to continuing professional development while restricted professionality has greater autonomy. Extended professionality is the basis for greater public confidence in teacher professionalism (Evans, 1997 and Sachs, 1997). INSET enlightens professional training as the received learning ‘delivered’ by experts through planned workshops and professional support as the received learning ‘acquired’ on the job from colleagues (Oldroyd and Hall, 1991). Teacher education is needed for developing a purpose and formulation of a positive attitude among prospective teachers for the profession (Aggarwal, 1993).


The subject of the research contained in-service teachers as teaching was best done by those who had high levels of literary attainment (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 42). However, the proposed study did not require only the few highly literate professionals to include but also majority of the teachers  who were practising as classroom practitioners in the private sector of education as ‘target population’ (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 13). In Lahore, there are networks of private schools to cater education for the children of different social groups. Such networks consist of trust school, business purpose schools, NGO’s school etc. The private school teachers were clustered according to different social groups i.e. teachers of the students from elite, upper middle, middle, and lower class. In Lahore, teachers of English medium private schools have been following different learning theories taken from over arching umbrella of academia.

The study required to collect data from a range of recently joined teachers to more experienced teachers from each of selected English medium private school ‘so that chance or the operation of probability is utilized’ (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 13). Therefore, researcher selected sample teachers from those schools, which were nearby and easily approachable. Mainly, due to research on a small scale that required only thirty sample teachers, researcher could not include all private schools that qualified selection criteria of population.

Survey research consisted of questionnaires to obtain a quantitative data, like Johnson & Christensen (2000) states that [teachers] opinion polls are always survey (p. 277); as it requires less time, is less expensive, and permits collection of data from a much larger sample (p. 281).

Interviews would provide spontaneous responses of teachers and administrators about teachers’ recruitment, working conditions in schools, job satisfaction regarding appraisal and salary, job description and teachers’ performance indicators. By establishing a rapport and a trust relationship, the interviewer can often obtain data that respondents would not give on a questionnaire (Johnson & Christensen, 2000, p. 291).

The researcher used statistical measures between variables to develop generalization of the present scenario and prediction of future setting as statistical data describe group behaviour … abstracted from a number of individual observations (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 354); although  they say that descriptive statistical analysis limits generalization (p. 355). Therefore, inferential analysis was used to get hold of the conclusion, as drawing conclusions about populations based on observation of sample is the purpose of inferential analysis (Best & Kahn, 2006, p. 356).

Findings and Discussions

The findings in the data show that respondents’ level of agreement with teaching is the best job rises after spending 5 years in teaching or due to financial growth approaching to Rs30000 or more. 76.6 % teachers of the sample size rank teaching is the best job for them who have 5 years or more experience however, 60 % respondents earn a maximum of Rs.39000. Figure 5.3 explains that 6.6 % female respondents with maximum income ranging from Rs.20000 – 29000 could not decide whether teaching is the best job for them. They might be agreed with the statement if salaried better. On the other hand, 10 % teachers taking in 6.6 % female and 3.3 % male respondents are inclined towards disagreed level of teaching is the best job due to a low-income profile ranging from Rs.10000 – 29000.

Fifty percent of the respondents who are female think during entire range of work experience that they could perform better in any other field of profession. It can be assumed that literate female might join teaching due to social and cultural boundaries set by the family heads. In addition, it can be hypothetical that teaching is considered the best activity by un-married female after completion of their studies. There are other motivational factors, which have been analysed through group interviews of the teachers.

Teachers of master level qualification with experience ranging from 6 – 15 years from both categories of gender depict mix behaviour with varied income range towards teaching is their last choice. Teachers during a period of 11 – 15 year are almost found totally inclined towards the test variable. The tangible reason might be joblessness but family pressure in case of female teachers cannot be rejected. With an extensive experience, female sample teachers with master and graduate level of qualification are moving towards the agreed end of continuum of the said statement. It explains that due to unavailability of the opportunities in other fields, literate people tend to move in the direction of teaching for a respectable earning. It may also be assumed that in private sector, educational institutes do not require pre-service teacher training or teacher education at the time of recruitment. Moreover, school administration replaces unsuccessful teachers when they get the right person. This dimension of teaching profession demands teachers to have not only a high literacy academic background but also teaching skills, mind-set and passion towards teaching profession.

It is also inferred from the data that the existence of other attitudes with which teachers come across while interacting with all stakeholders during a school day affect teachers’ morality that ultimately leave an effect on ranking teaching as a high status profession.

Comparison of different sub-areas of the research study with educational qualification – work experience – income / gender reveals that income is the dominant factor on which teaching is ranked by the sample teachers of the whole population. Teachers feel good and show a positive attitude towards different sub-areas of teaching as profession if they are paid enough to live an average standard of life.

Subsequent segment of analyses would have analyzed commitment towards teaching profession that explains the philosophy of teaching and teachers’ attitude with some other parameters.

43.3 % teachers of the sample size from both categories of gender earn the same respect from their students who follow the set of values and principles while interacting with their students because they believe school environment leaves a greater impact on students’ learning. On the other hand, 20 % respondent teachers do not earn the same respect from all of their students because they tend to deny following values and principles while interacting with students and point the finger at family environment regarding children’s learning. Therefore, it can be depicted that like other corporate business only those companies earn a good status in the market place which not only provide quality services to their consumers at a minimum cost but also follow the professional ethics set by the organization, teaching is required to set professional ethics and norms. And following those explicit norms and values tend to consider teaching as a corporate profession.

Mean value of sample teachers who plan differentiated lesson to make each student understand is 4.61 at St. Deviation 0.497 and the mean value of respondents who can earn better through home tuition is 3.27 at St. Deviation 1.413. Correlation shows that p value of significance is 0.004 which is less than 0.05 level of significance. So, there is no relation between planning differentiated lesson to make each student understand and earning better through home tuition. By comparing mean values it can be concluded that respondent teachers plan differentiated lesson to cater for whole class whether they can earn better through home tuition or not. This attitude of respondent teachers generalizes the fact that teachers’ job is make each student understand effectively in school by planning according to individual needs, which is a positive perspective of teaching profession; also, refers to catering for Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (Gardner & Hatch, 1989).

Sample teachers strongly demand for updated subject knowledge and the ability to impart the knowledge effectively through well-planned and well-organized lesson in an innovative and creative way of teaching.

Respondent teachers believe that the moral values and principles can be efficiently induced into students by being punctual, regular, firm and friendly, kind, disciplined, sincere and sympathetic.

Teachers’ presentation features include well dressed, well groomed and interactive with good communication skills.

The facilitation of significant learning rests upon certain attitudinal qualities that exist in the personal relationshipbetween facilitator and learner (Rogers, 1990). The positive attitudes of teachers refer to cooperation, receptive to criticism, learned, willing to listen and to learn, well-behaved and showing patience.

The professional traits of teacher comprise of competence that enable teachers to use different teaching strategies while planning and implementing the lesson and manage their time and resources effectively. Being a reflective practitioner, teachers enable to evaluate their classroom practice critically for improvement, as reflection is not an end itself (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 162).

Dedication, devotion, passionate and commitment refer to teachers’ faithfulness towards children’s development process as Rogers defines teacher be real and trustworthy persons with empathetic understanding (1990).

Respondents’ comments were added to open a room for further investigations considering teaching as a corporate profession in Lahore. The results explain respondent teachers’ demand for pre-service and in-service teacher training integrated with technology besides provision of opportunities to enhance qualification. They give an opinion that institution should also facilitate teachers enrolling themselves in professional development courses. They require management to be un-biased in promoting creative minded teachers which refers to a responsible role of administrator and advisory teacher regarding teachers’ professional growth along-with institutional expansion.

Sample teachers point out that teachers are ignorant of individual needs and do not bother about students’ personality but they work according to their salary. Conversely, some teachers respond that teachers are playing a positive role in building the characters of students and they should be paid well so they pay more attention to their profession. Behaviour shows that a professional and honest teacher remains hand to mouth. Such responses describe that teaching is a mean of respectable earning with social activities and community building upon which future of the nation rests. Like they quoted other business organizations, where professionals are paid according to their qualifications, training and experience, teachers must be paid enough well so that they may be able to put in their utmost effort, skills and potential to their core job sincerely. Regulation and skill formation of human capital through education and training, and schools and education system are key strategic sites from where the nation can achieve its social and economical priorities (Groundwater-Smith, Ewing & Le Cornu, 2003, p. 38-39).

Teachers perceive that teaching is high level profession at university level. They suggest to provide due respect to teachers in the society however, teachers’ respect is directly proportional to their personal and professional traits regardless of the salary earned as the analysis described in earlier discussion.

Another response demonstrates that the lack of coordination meetings with parents and students creates a gap between students’ needs and planning teaching strategies for improvement in students’ performance. If different perspectives are not clearly understood … children may be placed in the difficult situation of trying to reconcile (McGee & Fraser, 2005, p. 265-266).

Data from two groups of in-service teachers strengthens that married female teachers come into teaching to enjoy less working hours and they prefer to utilize day time in school with their children. It facilitates female teachers to avail free education of their children along with a satisfactory amount of financial support for their families. They make clear that teaching is a comparatively secure social activity than any other profession which allows them to build adolescents’ character. However, little behaviour shows that teachers work in creative manner according to their salary. They think that due to economic crisis, living a simple life turns out to be hard. Respondents explain that there is no other choice for literate female except teaching in order to support their families. As far as male teachers are concerned, they agree to become a teacher with no proper planning and call themselves ‘teachers by chance’ or ‘accidental teachers’.  However, they think that their children’s free education facility is the vital element that encourages them to continue teaching as a profession. In addition, respondents make a link of their financial enhancement through home tuition being subject specialists with the private practice of the specialist visiting doctors.

Teachers’ responses regarding working conditions and job satisfaction, when compare to their salary show mixed behaviour. Quite a good number of teachers claim that their salary does not match with the workload, they are assigned. They perceive that they can have better monetary benefits in the competitive educational environment of Lahore. However, some teachers respond in a fairly ethical manner of religion pertaining to satisfaction of their income. In addition, respondents think that the administration does not appreciate suggestions from the teaching staff and hardly shows readiness to modify current practices.

On the topic of pre-service and in-service teacher training and professional development, almost all of the teachers consider it as an essential domain of professional requirements. Their demand is to facilitate new induction through proper mentoring in order to assess their potential of dealing with different age groups (as it was established in chapter 1); and to make new induction clear about system’s requirements and its policies. They think that educational / subject refresher workshops and professional development courses must be an integral field of in-service teaching to make them learn new techniques of teaching and to upgrade their knowledge.

Teachers tend to favour pre-service training, which enables them to understand the variety of activities; they are supposed to do, while teaching. Moreover, respondents quote that a doctor goes through house-job period before practicing as a general practitioner and in order to construct a building; people study engineering of the relevant field, then in the same way teachers must attend pre-service training as they are contributing in building the nation. Sample teachers responses show that teachers might consider themselves successful even if they build personalities of a few students of the multitude. Although, an outlier does not support pre-service teacher training that underpins teachers’ perception, who consider that teaching as a profession requires only higher literacy attainments.

Few teachers point out that they are determined to enroll themselves in CPD activities but due to the restriction of signing bond for a particular time period with the system, they do not take initiative. Such attitude refers to restricted professionality, where teachers’ prospective CPD activities have a tendency to be affected by school policies.

Recommendations for In-Service Teachers

Researcher strongly felt during the entire study that because of the absence of prior planning, teachers who enter in the teaching profession by chance or accidentally are required to build up a professional attitude by acquiring essential skills of teaching through Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes.

Teachers are required to analyze their strengths being teachers, which enable them to prevail over their weaknesses through proper planning. They should explore such opportunities of acquiring professional skills, which in turn benefit them in teaching with different strategies to cater children of ‘multiple intelligences’ (Gardner & Hatch, 1989).

Instead of being pessimistic, they should develop an optimistic approach towards teaching as a profession since it demands to spend reasonably good time in planning diverse and creative lesson to cater for differentiated leaning abilities. A positive attitude would lead them to consider teaching as a high status profession.

Competent teachers should take initiatives in building a culture of sharing and working as team members to compensate their colleagues who have comparatively more work load. They should also encourage each other by celebrating individual teacher’s achievements and rewards in their free time.

Teachers, who are earning through home tuitions, are required to abide by the professional ethics in order to enhance morality of teaching profession.

Teachers should develop a positive stance while interacting with the management since management intention is to create a bridge between system’s policies and the teachers.

Recommendations for Management

To maintain quality teaching, intensive workshops should be conducted before beginning of the academic year for newly inducted teachers. In addition, a mentor teacher who is other than the school administrator should be assigned to train new induction for a complete term. Moreover, in order to reduce teachers’ turnover per annum, unbiased appraisal should be assured and monitored at each level of the management.  Furthermore, school management should justify teachers’ work load with them individually that would help bridging the gap between teachers and management.


The findings of the data revealed that giving consideration to teaching as a corporate profession is indispensable in the private sector of Lahore. It is observed by the fact that in-service teachers have selected teaching as their earning tool with no prior planning but they have been trying to become effective teachers with the existing situation to the best of their potential. Keeping in view that due to the un-availability of employment in various fields of profession in Lahore, literate people have adjusted themselves as dispensers of knowledge, thus helping themselves to secure employment followed by economic security which is their primary objective. On the other hand, despite the needs to formulate professional attitudes in in-service teachers, teachers need to know themselves as ‘nation builders’ as they are futurologists (Hodge, 1993, p. 148). Therefore, this research is useful not only for in-service teachers to take the ownership of building the nation by developing extended professionality. It also, offers direction to the management of private schools in Lahore in terms of providing a baseline for them to facilitate in-service teachers not only with teaching skills, strategies and methodologies but also creating a healthy and learning environment, better working conditions and revising their salaries to put up with economic instability. That will ultimately help stimulating teachers’ potential to their best. In the large interest of in-service teachers, they need to know their vision as nation builders. An assertive attitude with a blissful vision leads teachers to recognize the work; they have been doing as professionals.


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Alfrey, C. (2003). Understanding Children’s Learning. London: David Fulton Publishers Ltd.

Best, J. W. & Kahn, J. V. (2006). Research in Education (10th edition). India: Pearson Education & Dorling Kindersley. Pvt. Ltd.

Busher, H. and Saran, R. (1995). Managing Teachers as Professionals in School. Unknown: Kogan Page.

Downie, R. S. (1990). Professions and professionalism. Journal of Philosophy of education, 24(2), 147 – 159.

Evans, L. (1997). A voice crying in the wilderness? The problems and constraints facing ‘extended’ professionals in the English primary education sector. Teachers and teaching: Theory into practice, 3(1) , 61 – 83. Fullinwider. (1995).

Gardner, H. & Hatch, T. (1989). Multiple Intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences’, Educational Research.

Groundwater-Smith, S., Ewing, R. & Le Cornu, R. (2003). TEACHING: challenges and dilemmas (2nd edition). Australia: Thomson.

Hodge, B. (1993). Teaching as Communication. London: Longman.

Hoyle, E. (1975). Professionality, professionalism control in teaching. In V. Houghton, R. Mchugh, & c. Morgan (Eds.). Management in education: Organizations and individuals, (p. 413-320). London: Ward Lock Educational.


Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2000). EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, QUANTITATIVE AND QUALTATIVE APPROACHES. Boston (USA): Allyn and Bacon.

Kelly,M. 1996, ‘Teachers as Leaders of Learning’, Professional Exchange: Teachers talking to teachers, Queensland Board of Teacher Registration, Issue Fourteen, p. 1.

Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press.

McGee, C. & Fraser, D. (2005) The Professional Practice of Teaching 2nd edition. Australia: Thomson/Dunmore Press

Melnick, S. & Zeichner, K. (1998). ‘Teacher education’s responsibility to address diversity issues: Enhancing Institutional capacity’, Theory into Practice, 37(2).

Oldroyd, D. and Hall, V. (1991) Managing Staff Development. A Handbook for Secondary School. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

Peters, R. S. (1967). ‘Authority’, in Quinton, A. (ed.) Oxford Reading in Political Philosophy.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ramsey, G. (2000). Quality Matters. Revitalizing teaching: Critical times, critical choices. Sydney: New South Wales Department of Education and Training.

Rishworth, P. (1999). The challenge of rights. NZ Education Review, 24 September, p. 5.

Rogers, C. (1990). The Carl Rogers Readers, ed. H. Kirschenbaum and V. Land Handerson. London: Constable.

Sachs, J. (1997). Reclaiming the agenda of teacher professionalism: An Australian experience. Journal of Education for Teaching, 23(3), 263-275.

Singh, R. P. and Rana, G. (2002) Teacher Education in Turmoil: Quest for a Solution. New Delhi: Sterling Publisher Pvt. Ltd.

Strike, K. A. (1993). Professionalism, democracy, and discursive communities: Normative reflections on re-structuring. American Educational Research Journal, 30(2), 255-275.

Tedesco, J. (1996). ‘The role of teachers’, in Educational Innovation, International Bureau of Education, Educational Research Journal, 88, p. 1.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind and society: The Development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Winch, C. & Gingell, J. (1999). Key Concepts in The Philosophy of Education. London: Routledge.

Alternative Learning System for the Aeta Community: Equalizing Education to Cultural Minority Groups in Lopez, Quezon, Philippines

“ALS is expected to provide solutions in areas of conflict, critical thinking, in indigenous people communities and in areas where literacy is most wanting and where literacy is needed.”

Hon. Jesli Lapus, Secretary of Department of Educatin

The government’s vision for non-formal education is revitalized and epitomized through anExecutive Order No. 358 S. 2004, rnaming and reinventing of the Bureau of Nonformal Education to Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) whose vision is to view the Philippines as a nation where all the citizens, especially the marginalized individual or group of learners who could not equitably gain access to formal education because of unwanted conditions, be given equal access to quality education by taking an alternative learningsystem that will enable them to become productive workforce and members of the land. As its mandates, ALS is propelled by its functions to:

    1. Address the learning needs of the marginalized groups of the population including the deprived , depressed, and underserved citizens;
    1. Coordinate with various agencies for skills development to enhance and ensure continuing employability, efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness in the labor market;
    1. Ensure the expansion of access to educational opportunities for citizens of different interests, capabilities demographic characteristics and socio-economic origins and status; and
    1. Promote certification and accreditation of alternative learning programs both formal and informal in nature of basic education.

This mini case study focuses on the role of the ALS programs catered by the Lopez East District ALS coordinator and its local instructional managers to address the present needs and to delineate briefly their clienteles’ way of life in the settlement or community in Brgy. Villa Espina, Lopez, Quezon. The Aetas in Lopez, Quezon can not be overlooked for they are already adapting to the changes in their surrounding. Furthermore, being members of the disadvantage group of people, giving them the opportunity to equal access to education is a priority concern of the government being carried over by its local counterpart.

While some nongovernmental organizations also take part in aiding educational facilities and health and sanitation service, this mini-case study highlighted only the application of ALS in the promotion of literacy among the Aetas of Lopez, Quezon, describing the attitude or responses of the clienteles in Aeta community toward the realization of educational efforts starting February 2008 to the present.

This case study includes the initiatives and actions of the ALS coordinator and her instructional managers’ common experience with their clienteles and the attitude or behavior of the Aeta clienteles toward its programs. It also includes ethnographic account of how the usual ALS class goes on. The student-researchers were able to validate such remarks and notes in direct observations and interview they conducted at the Aeta clienteles and its immediate community.

Majority of the data used in this report were drawn from interview and observations from the school site and reports of the Lopez East District Alternative Learning System Office. On the other hand, this mini-case study had also limitations. The researchers initially recommend that another follow or related study on the subjects be conducted concerning on the cultural impact of this learning in an alternative way.


The Alternative Learning System Coordinator of Lopez East District who is in-charged of delivering the programs of BALS to the Aeta community is Mrs. Angelina J. Oblina. On her team are two Instructional Managers (IM) and an Aeta coordinator. The two instructional managers are the key teachers and implementers who directly get involved and supervised and promote ALS program to the Aeta Community. Mrs. Mabel A. Oblina and Wilma Capistrano are the IMs, who are paid by the local government with a monthly honorarium of P 4, 500.00 pesos each. The Aeta coordinator is Andy Villa Franco, local villager who maintains direct contact to the Aeta community clienteles in the absence of the IMs or the ALS coordinator.

From non-formal to ALS, it formally opened last February 2008. Through local ALS Coordinator’s initiatives of hiring local funded instructional managers and her unquestionably commitment to its program implementation, ALS instruction to the Aeta community begun. Since its target clienteles are the Aeta community, encouragement and recruitment to this displaced minority was the biggest toll at the onset.

Formerly, on her report, Mrs. Oblina was able to delineate some of its beginning noting the following points.

Tribal groups, specifically Aetas are the deprived, depressed and undeserved population. Their settlement can be found in a far-flung area. Uncivilized and illiterate, only few attended formal schooling because they do not understand the benefit that education could give to a person. On September 1, 1994, Non-Formal Education (NFE) brought the school for the Aetas, through “Magbasa Kita Project” a basic literacy program of the department. I was assigned to handle the class or community of Aeta as “para-teacher” at the same time “ate” not ma’am or teacher by the Aetas. Back then, I introduced the phono-syllabic lessons. The school was made up of nipa that existed in Villa Espina. The enrollees of these classes are of no age limit.

Dealing with Aetas as one of the NFE/ALS clienteles is not an easy task for me. So, I mobilized our local system. It is indeed very challenging on our part. We had a hard time encouraging and motivating them so that they will come to school. Convincing them to come to school even included drinking liquor with them. Furthermore, we use variety of ways and approaches to be able to win their interest. The school set-up lasted for some years yet their ways of living have not changed despite all the efforts exerted by their other mentors. Some still carried the old practices and do not even own a house where they can live permanently and comfortably.

Construction of two-room building sponsored by the ABS-CBN “Tree of Hope Program” built last year (2007) became one of the motivating factors that led the Aetas to take ALS program. ALS program formally started from February to April 2008. Fortunately, out of more or less 50 households, Fifty-four Aetas were its first batch of students. The group was divided into two separate classes. The first group consisted of young Aetas for 6 to 13 years old under the tutelage of Mrs. Wilma A. Oblina. This group is at the beginning level of instructional. The other class, under Mrs. Wilma Capistrano comprised of the teenagers to adult consisting of 13 years old to as old as forty-four. This group could be considered as emergent learners progressing from the very basic level. During this grace period, meetings were done three times a week. Instruction during those times focused mainly to basic literacy focus, which is more on reading of the alphabet (phono-syllabic lessons), writing (specifically writing their names) and clienteles’ adjustment to alternative schooling.

Alternative Learning System programs continued starting this beginning school year, June 2008. There was an increased enrolment. From fifty-four (54) Aetas who enrolled last February, it escalated to seventy-four (74) this June. Out of this 74, majority of which is female, 65% and male, 35%. Ten of which are parents and mostly are young ones. “However, maintaining 100% attendance is the biggest problem,” the instructional managers noted. On the average, 50-60 % of the total enrolment comes to school regularly. Consequently, the food for school program requested by the ALS District Coordinator which the Local Government Unit (LGU) addressed the problem of abseeteism among the Aetas. However sustaining the program is another concern. Meetings this time are from Monday to Friday not unlike the previous one, which is only three times.

The coordinator and instructional managers would recount that the usual or typical day would go like this…

The Aeta-clienteles would come to school in the morning. Not all students would come early. Others were still be coming from Brgy. Pisipis and other neighboring barangays. Some wore uniform others in their ragged cloths. A flag ceremony used to be held at the start of the week. Then, the Aetas did housekeeping and other pre-routinary activities. Basic alphabet to word reading, writing, and arithmetic activities were provided for three hours. We would read aloud the alphabet, minimal pair words, read short passages, and ask them to read aloud and write. Most of them get bored easily for they had different types of learning. Most of them had usually short span of attention so we had quick breaks from time to time.

Preparing the meal of the day was the most important for them. Since some of them had not taken breakfast or suffer the day before. After the early morning routinary activities, we would be preparing the meal of the day where everybody will be part. Food is the best reward and encouragement we could offer them. Because of food nourishment, they come to school. There was even an incident that Aeta would come very late to school just in time for lunch. After a while or a siesta, Afternoon session would be allotted to free and varied activities. Film viewing occupied the most times, because of the Television set and educational package, we have recently received from a donation all the way from Hawaii. Televiewing became a part of the afternoon session. When the day was over, we teachers could not help but be challenged different adjustments met so as our Aeta clienteles.

We find teaching and learning with them demanding yet very stimulating because of some reasons:

· Some unsanitary practices of some of the Aeta clienteles are lessened. We introduced teaching of basic sanitary hygiene. However, for customary reason few would not heed our advice for it already became their system since they were born. Consequently, we got use to some of their unsanitary practices but we always address them as much as possible teaching the parent clienteles the right ways though most of them do not care much to their children for customary reason.

· Abseetism is also common problem since the approach is new for them at the start. Looking at them from a day-to-day perspective, most of them skip school because some work in farms by harvesting young anahaw leaves or working with their specific “Amos”, and for very apparent reason, if there are times that we don’t have food or meal of the day to offer them, we would rather have an empty room than to have clienteles with empty stomachs.

· Aetas clienteles interact with the ALS program differently. Students learning style and mental capacity vary different from one another. Some learn smoothly. Others need constant review. At the beginning level, it is common to see Aeta-clienteles to misspell their names what is even the worse is that they sometimes forget their surname or they change their names.

· Few of their practices are still prevalent but mostly are dead or forgotten. One Aeta client even shares that they could no longer remember any tribal rites taught to them by the elders. Still, some of them wander and work from the community to nearby barangays. They don’t permanently stay in one place, except of course for those who have learned to fit in to the local villagers. What is quite pressing for us in relation to their ways is that an early marriage is common thing. An Aeta could already find and live with his/her partner at the age of 12. In addition, they could easily switch or change partner as the pair pleases. Another noticeable activity they often engage with is drinking. Moreover, in certain occasion, a villager could get along with most of the Aeta over bottles of liquor or any alcoholic drink and if Aetas drink alcohol, it ends to a drinking spree. This manner somehow affects their attitude to learning. An adult Aeta clientele could compromise going to school just to a bottle of liquor.

Battling these all sort of things every day, we as their teachers or “Ate” as they call us, could freely tell that we influence their lives toward the basic literacy and even more. Most of them have already accustomed to the ways of the civilized people. Emerging clienteles whom we have been teaching hard can already read and write basic Filipino words, can calculate numbers so that they well not be cheated by their “Amos” for their fair share of farm works, can practices basic sanitary hygiene from brushing of teeth to basic housekeeping, and for some who have fitted in to the latest technology can send short messaging service (SMS) via cellphone. The Aetas in Brgy. Villa Espina are becoming like civilized people because of us, other local villager’s intervention, and the influences of the latest technology-stricken world.

With the programs being offered by the District, seeing ALS greater impact for the future of the Aeta community, has a long way to go, of which the District Coordinator and the researchers unanimously agreed upon adding that a lot of concerns or priorities still must and should be acted promptly.


“Education to be meaningful must be rooted in the community life and experience of the people; because learning takes place in this context as well as in the way they understand the stages of their cycle.”

BALS framework

To ensure the expansion of access of educational opportunities and capability building, the BALS national office has been training its ALS district coordinators starting the opening year. One seminar on ALS Trends & Updates for Full Time District ALS Coordinators impacted much the approaches of Mrs. Oblina and her team of local counterparts. Myriad of realization was absorbed by contemplating and living up with the BALS framework. It does require change from their usual approaches.

Meanwhile, on a division level training, the local ALS people and some of the Aeta representatives attended just recently this month (August 2008). They were exposed to training framework for the Indigenous People (IP) and Indigenous People Core Curriculum (IPCC). With the help, expertise of local indigenous people and in coordination with the National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP) Summer Institutes of Linguistic (SIL) and other IP concerned agencies: the Bureau was able to develop an Indigenous Peoples (IP) Core Curriculum. The competencies identified by the ALS curriculum are now realized through a modular system of education that will guide the coordinator, Instructional Managers and the Aeta clienteles to mode and education the clienteles will receive.

Citing this remarkable interventions or realization, the following concerns and points are noted by experts for the culturally sensitive and integrative delivery of instruction to the IP, specifically the Aeta clienteles:

        1. The development process not only ensured a culture-sensitive core curriculum but also maximized local participation in all aspects of decision making and actions relevant to the finalization of the IP Core Curriculum.
        1. Expert on IPCC remarked that without necessarily emphasizing an overkill tone, the highly western-entrenched current educational system has contributed to the further marginalization and exploitation of IPs. The said system has been producing graduates who are trained to become employees and not as entrepreneurs who can become employers.
        1. The Right-Based Approach (RBA) to education verbalizes these facts. Its strengths sustainable development and the exercise of self-determination in as much as education is supposed to be an “enabling” (for recognition and empowerment), an “ensuring” (for protection) and an “enhancing” (for development and promotion) tool for indigenous Peoples, their ancestral domains and their cultural integrity.

Adding the important issues mentioned, on the literature of a news article of Ina Hernando-Malipot, available at, she stressed the study done by Dr. Jill Bevan-Brown, associate professor at Massey University in New Zealand during the 5th International Conference on Teacher Education (ICTED) marking that the children with special needs from ethnic minority groups can have additional disadvantage.

In her talk entitled, “Culturally Appropriate Provisions for Children with Special Needs from Ethnic Minority Groups: A Story of Two Maori Initiatives,” Dr. Brown mentioned that for children with special needs from ethnic minority groups, having access to special education provisions is not a problem. In fact, in various special education categories, they are over-represented. “However, receiving an education that is culturally-appropriate and effective is major issue.”

“Thus, we have developed two initiatives that aim to improve this situation – the teachers conducting a cultural self-review of their early childhood center or school as part of their SpEd qualification; and the involvement of government agencies, teachers and parents of the children,” Dr. Brown revealed.

Dr. Brown finally said that in gaining education, children with special needs have additional challenges compared to their non-disabled peers. “Similarly, children with special needs from ethnic minority groups face challenges their disabled peers from majority cultures do not face, these children have been dealt ‘double whammy’.”

The literature clearly appeals that change or innovation must be made to fit to the educational needs of the Aeta community in Brgy. Villa Espina, Lopez, Quezon. Since the ALS in this community is newly born, greater measures adaptive to their or Aeta clienteles’ culture which is being compromised should and must be acted upon not only by the ALS people, but also by the LGU, the NCIP, and most of all by people who are in control of major local resources.


The following questions have become starting points to ponder. Is the ALS in Villa Espina “enabling” its Aeta clienteles (for recognition and empowerment)? “Ensuring” (for protection)? And “enhancing” (for development and promotion) tool for indigenous Peoples, their ancestral domains and their cultural integrity?

Mrs. Oblina is hopeful that the modules on functional literacy that they have been waiting to be delivered by the national office would be received at the soonest possible time to empower the process of instruction and therefore the Aeta clienteles. The Local Government Unit through the Municipal Mayor, Hon.Isaias Ubana, has been planning an initiative that would give the Aeta community a place of home and refuge where their inherit and latent cultural ways and norms will be restored and revived. The Municipal Mayor himself has just disclosed this local initiative to the ALS coordinator. This mode of action if achieve would ensure protection. However, issues about ancestral domain surfaces. This is not the first time, municipal heads before the incumbent mayor had been appealed by the Aeta community though their local chieftain for support of their ancestral land recovery. Unfortunately, the petition for land recovery fell to deaf ears or should the researchers say “no clear response at the moment”.

With the trainings and supports given by the national and local government units side by side with the non-governmental sectors, the ALS Lopez East District and the researchers envision that the ALS for the Aeta community in Lopez, Quezon on its long-term target goals will continue to realize and realize those following plans of:

· Offering of food for school program be sustained and as time progress be replaced by a sustainable livelihood programs which the Aeta clienteles can be trained of and apparently leading to their independence from aids to self-sufficient and working individual or group of the community;

· Liberating the members of the Aeta community from ignorance to functionally literate people. A functionally literate person is defined as one who can communicate effectively, solve problems scientifically, creatively and think critically, use resources sustainable and be productive, develop himself/herself and his/her sense of community and expand his/her world view;

· Accessing to accreditation and competency tests is given to the ALS Aeta graduates. If the clientele is successful in the competency exam, going or transferring to the higher formal education if he or she desires, will be straightforward for them;

· Having properly paid, equipped, and trained instructional managers. Nationalization of the locally compensated IMs will empower them further to work not only as a teacher but as highly committed social workers for the betterment of the clienteles; and

· Educating them not only for literacy but also for restoration of their cultural ways as Indigenous People (IP) who have their cultural integrity and ancestral domains creating their own cultural identity as part and parcel of the Lopez, Quezon community and of the Filipino people.

To achieve all of these, which some are still in plans, need hand-in-hand actions emanating both from the government and from the Aeta community. If this will be realized, equitable access to education is now at hand to those who need and aspire for it. Apparently, tt comes from alternative ways, if non-governmental sectors even take part to this movement like the ABSCBN school building project for the Aeta, and other philanthropic individual who are all genuine in their interests, the social cultural revival and education empowerment for the Aetas will surely be accomplished.

References and Further Readings:

Ina Hernando-Malipot news article available at

Executive Order No. 358 S. 2004 available at

The Indigenous Peoples Core Curriculum by Department of Education, Bureau of Alternative Learning System (BALS) Handouts 2006

Lopez East District Alternative Learning System Initial School Reports SY 2008-2009

Acknowledgements are given to the following persons for the interviews, observation and other data gathered of which the researchers are greatly indebted with.

MRS. ANGELINA J. OBLINA, Lopez East District ALS Coordinator

MRS. MARIVEL A. OBLINA, Instructional Manager

MRS. WILMA S. CAPISTRANO, Instructional Manager


Professional Development for Multicultural Education

Teachers are faced with many challenges in the classroom. Starting with the pressure to develop challenging exams and grade papers on time to the time deadlines of creating their lesson plans, the job seems to be never ending. However, teachers are also faced with accomplishing their main job role of a superior communicator to the students in the classroom. Unless they communicate in an exceptional manner, their students will never be able to learn correctly. Teachers working in multicultural education face an additional dilemma as they must now enhance their communication skills because of both cultural and language barriers in the classroom.

Before entering the multicultural education environment, there are a few things that teachers must do to prepare. Educators must first familiarize themselves with the cultural differences of all students who attend the school in which they teach. The best way for the teacher to bond with the students is to share a common interest or have a way in which to initiate conversation. Therefore, the teacher should be aware of the cultural uniqueness of each and every student. Showing a liking to individual students is a way in which to gain trust and form bonds.

Additionally, the teacher must decide how they can improve their current teaching strategy. They do not want to alter it too drastically because that will confuse the students, but at the same time there is always room for change. Teachers can ask their students for suggestions as to how they can improve their performance in the classroom. Together, the teacher and students will make the learning process much more effective and efficient.

How does one go about this process? Well, there are three approaches to teacher professional development. The first is individual research to enhance their knowledge base about multicultural education. During this process, the teacher should recognize the demographic of the area in which they teach. For example, if his or her class consists of many Hispanic students, the teacher may familiarize him or herself with traditions of that culture or learn how to speak some basic Spanish vocabulary.

The second approach is to attend lectures on specific topics related to teacher professional development. Multi-racial awareness activities will expose teachers to the different learning styles that their students portray. Research has shown that cultural groups learn in unique ways due to their history and values. Additionally, teachers will learn the reasons for the cultural differences, which root back to philosophy and social customs. Teaching strategies, such as role-playing and simulations, may help some students learn better as opposed to the ordinarily used lecture style of teaching. Once the teacher decides on the most effective strategy, he or she will notice success in their overall student performance and will feel rewarded.

Lastly, teachers learn through their own experience. This allows the teacher to learn about multicultural education firsthand by combining classroom-based learning with field-based experience. Once in the classroom interacting with the students, the teacher will be able to observe the different learning styles of the students and will be able to better plan for the future. Teachers should not be afraid to implement a unique teaching style because it may succeed in the multicultural environment.

Teacher professional development must comprise resources and ideas for teachers to use in allowing themselves to learn about cultural diversity. After completing the development process, teachers will have broadened their instructive knowledge, improve their skill set, and alter their beliefs, attitudes and understanding of working with a diverse variety of students. Although the task may be daunting, the overall outcome is beneficial and will make the teacher a successful communicator.

New Pell Grants And $10,000 Scholarships Are Being Offered To Moms

President Obama is urging moms to get back in school. A new program, Scholarships for Moms is being offered by Obama to increase jobs during the current economical recession. Moms can now obtain a larger $5,500 Federal Pell Grant to begin the college journey. Moms, single or not maybe able to afford the college costs with the additional assistance. The cost of moms attending college is also being aided with other various denomination scholarshipscreated by the President. To those who qualify for the Pell grant, the $5,500 will go towards achieving a higher degree, allowing moms to find better work and stimulate the economy. Of course, moms are arguably the busiest people on the planet, so online education is always an option. When the kids are asleep mom goes into motion as a college student. Certified classes are available at city colleges as well at full colleges and universities along with on line educational sites that specialize in degree programs. A $10,000 scholarship will be offered to the moms who did not qualify for the Pell grant. Only a small amount of moms will receive this scholarship because there are so many moms applying for the prize. Back to school moms require the scholarship money to offset the numerous expenses of going to college. Along with allowing Americans the opportunity to achieve a higher education, this will help stimulate the deteriorating economy. The $10,000 scholarship will most likely not pay for the entire tuition for all moms, so they will in turn invest their money in education, helping to bring the economy back to a thriving state. In corporate business the degree determines the job and future advancement. Moms are improving themselves and their families by working for a college degree and a better position in life. This scholarship program is so popular that it has a very positive image attached to it. The America dream seems reachable to many moms when they pursue their college career later in life through the scholarship program. A place to call home without the worry of landlord intervention is most moms greatest dream. A mom knows that a solid job is required to purchase a home and that can come about when you get a better education that demands a greater salary. Moms are helping the economy of the country by improving the education through the scholarship program. Hope and dreams come alive when moms see the possibility of a gift to educate and reach a goal that was off the screen just a moment ago. Obama rejuvenating the moms scholarship and grant program has contributed to making better, wiser and more educated moms able to take care of their families and building a bridge to the business world. Moms need to register to be eligible for the monthly drawing that determines the scholarship winners. Moms, especially single moms know how hard it is to go back to college.

Special Educational Services – As Defined by IDEA

A good education is comprised of an itinerary that gives children an acumen to appreciate the world around them. But some children with disabilities or behavioral issues have a lot of ground to cover when it comes to learning in a commonplace teaching sphere. It may become strenuous and exhausting for them if their learning environment does not take into account their special needs. These are children that may be facing social, physical, mental or emotional delays. This facet of delays is designated as developmental delays and muster all-inclusive aspects of comprehensive development like –

  • Physical and Motor Skills
  • Cognitive skills
  • Scholastic skills
  • Language and speech
  • Social and Emotional  skills

Special education schools in Manhattan offer special educational programs to address the unique needs of such children. These special programs incorporate special teaching methodologies, ideas and mediums that are not usually a part of a regular, long-established school environment. The special education services provided by the state of NY do not charge extra fees from the families and caregivers of the children until they reach the age of 21. However, there are additional special educational services available for adults after the age of 21.

The federal law for special education, IDEA or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has categorized these afflictions into certain groups.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are categorized as neurodevelopmental delays, which tend to create barriers in an individual’s efforts to communicate (verbally or non-verbally) and hence resulting in detached social interactions. Children on this spectrum often suffer from repetitive behavior patterns and may struggle to cope with even a slight change in their daily routine or environment. Their responses to sensory stimuli is not habitual.

  • Multiple Disabilities

Children with multiple disabilities have associated impairments, such as intellectual disabilities combined with orthopedic impairment. Such concomitant disabilities require special educational programs that are predominantly designed to match distinctive requirements of affiliated impairments.


  • Speech/language impairment

A Speech/language impairment is defined as a communication disorder that includes talking with continued reflexive recapitulation of sounds or an impaired articulation that may have an unfavorable effect on a child’s communication and academic learning abilities.

  • Intellectual Disability

Intellectual disability is revealed through a child’s development phase. It effects the functioning of intelligence along with deficits in adaptive behavior.

  • Developmental Delays

Children in the age group of 0-9 years of age have a higher possibility of being diagnosed with developmental delays. It is usually diagnosed in children by the age of nine. Children suffering from developmental delays face delays in cognitive, physical and emotional development.

  • Specific Learning Disability

SLD refers to a condition where a child faces difficulties in basic cognitive skills including their ability to listen, think, read or write. It also includes perceptual disabilities such as dyslexia, brain dysfunction and some kinds of brain injuries.

Under IDEA, children undergo various evaluations by state registered pediatricians, school psychologists and special trainers. When a child is diagnosed into a specific categorical impairment, their improvements and developments are documented with the help of various tools.

Free TExES Exam Study Guide Secrets That Will Prep You For The Real Thing

As a future certified teacher, you know that using a online TExES exam study guide is an essential part of preparing you for the big day.  The TExES exam study guide can show you the format of the real test. Better still, it can also help you to generate a general idea of how well you’ll score.  Getting a high score can give you the sense of confidence that you need to succeed.  However, failing a practice exam can give you the kind of wake-up call to study harder in preparation for the real deal.

Additionally, online TExES exam study guide practice questions can allow future certified Texas teachers to try out test-busting tips, secrets and techniques that ordinary TExES exam study guides leave out.  Want the inside scoop on techniques developed and perfected by previous test takers?  Grab a cup of coffee, sit back and get ready to pass your TExES exam with flying colors now!

TExES Exam Study Guide Practice Secret 1: The TExES exam is different from other standardized tests in that you should answer as if you lived in an ideal world.  In other words, approach each question as if you had an unlimited budget and lots of time to spend with students.

If you’re not sure of an answer, always look for answers that are geared towards the ideal teacher’s world, as these will typically be the correct ones.  Most free TExES exam study guides material won’t reveal this important secret, which is why it’s so important to learn from previous test takers and certified Texas teachers!

TExES Exam Study Guide Preparation Secret 2: If there’s ever a question that you’re not sure about – and the technique above hasn’t helped – then find the questions that are student-centered as opposed to teacher-oriented.  Additionally, correct answers on the TExES exam will highlight cooperative learning.  Therefore, if you’re stuck on a question with two or three possible answers, identify the one answer which caters to these requirements.

TExES Exam Study Guide Prep Secret 3: Previous test takers won’t hesitate to tell you that some free TExES exam study guides manuals simply don’t make the cut.  Why is this, you might ask?  Simple: because these overly-simplistic testing manuals don’t reflect the degree of difficulty of the actual exam.  In fact, a recent study confirmed that 50% – 75% of the content in the most widely used TExES exam study guide practice tests don’t match the real questions onthe exam.

To make matters worse, these reviews don’t provide you with the volume of practice teststhat you need to succeed.  Don’t let these exam study guides for the TExES give you an over-inflated sense of confidence; instead, choose a study guide that will give you the most realistic taste of the actual exam.

  • TExES 111 Generalist 4-8
  • 161 Special Education ec-12
  • TExES 135 Mathematics 8-12
  • 118 Social Studies 4-8
  • TExES 133 History 8-12 exam study guide
  • 136 Science 8-12
  • TExES 138 Life Science 8-12
  • 137 Physical Science 8-12
  • TExES 158 Physical Education ec-12
  • 154 English As A Second Language (ESL) Supplemental
  • TExES 102 Bilingual Education
  • Bilingual Generalist ec-4
  • TExES 130 Pedagogy And Professional Responsibilities 8-12
  • Pedagogy And Professional Responsibilities ec-12”
  • TExES 133 History 8-12
  • 068 Principal exam study guide
  • TExES 131 English Language Arts And Reading 8-12
  • 142 Technology Applications ec-4
  • TExES 177 Music ec-12
  • 152 School Counselor
  • TExES 178 Art ec-12
  • 157 Health ec-12
  • exam study guide for the TExES ppr test
  • PPR test
  • PPR exam

The Manthan School – Amazing Educational Ambience

The Manthan School offers path breaking services in order to provide a stimulating learning environment for kids. Further, the school program has been designed to support kids to achieve their potential to the utmost extent.

The Manthan school pays equal emphasis on various activities such as academics, sports, language, debates, theatre, dance and music amongst others. It also provides nutritious meals to children and desires to develop as the best available day care in Noida.

A desire to attain excellence is what drives the staff at the school. It focuses on holistic development of children and offers them state of the art facilities. The school is also renowned for its splendid infrastructure which is displayed below:
• Fine art studio (The Arty Fact Room)
Acting studio (The Playhouse)
• Language studio (The Book House)
• Excellent class rooms
• Working walls
• Composite Lab
• Music and Dance Room
• Skates and skittles floor
• Basketball court
• Table tennis facilities
• Aerobics facilities
• Customized gymnasium for young kids.

Some amazing facilities which are capable of helping the Manthan School to evolve as the best play school in Noida are displayed here:
The Acoustic Box: The Acoustic Box is a place where a student can display his/her concerns without an adult supervision. Further, one can listen to kids’ hearts’ vibrations through this sound box and provide them adequate help.

Chill-Out Zone: Students can enjoy, listen to music or play games at the chill out zone.

Sprinkler Park: Showers or fountains at Sprinkler Park provide artificial rain which is highly enjoyed by the kids.

The Green Globe: An open to sky atrium where kids can learn about beautiful flora and fauna.

The Manthan School is positioned to be affiliated to the CBSE board. Moreover, the primary classes’ curriculum is based on NCERT guidelines. Along with education, extra-curricular activities are also given prominence at the school. The co-curriculum of the school includes:
Art & Craft: Art and Craft is a major part of the school’s curriculum and helps intellectual, personal and social development of kids. These classes also help in enhancing creativity among children.

Music: Music education is important as it helps in evolving spatial intelligence and spatial-temporal skills in kids. Further, it also supports mental and social development of children.

Sports: Sports is necessary for physical strength and should be a part of kids’ life from a tender age. By including physical education, in its curriculum, the Manthan School has displayed its commitment towards kids’ fitness. Sporting activities helps in increasing muscular strength and stamina of children.

Dance: Dance education is also an essential part of the school curriculum. It’s an amazing form of cultural expression and help in developing physical, cognitive and social characteristics amongst kids. Various sorts of dance forms are taught at the school.

The Manthan School desires to help kids fulfill their maximum potential and develop as responsible citizens. The staff at the school focuses on creating the leaders of tomorrow. Due to awesome amenities and an amazing educational ambience, the Manthan School is poised to develop as one of the best schools in Delhi NCR.

The strengths of children with learning disabilities

Each one of us has a unique set of mental capabilities that comprises of certain strengths and challenges. This concept is known as neurodiversity and it is what makes each of us unique and multifaceted.

Children with a learning disability (LD) are generally viewed as those that are deficient in certain skills and abilities that come naturally to others. Yet, what sometimes tends to be ignored is the fact that children with LDs also show characteristic strengths that set them apart as well.
It would be inaccurate to generalize all cases of learning disabilities but it has been documented that children with LDs usually show a somewhat similar set of strengths. In this article, we shall have a look at the abilities and qualities that are seen in children with learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactive disorders.

Strengths of children with a learning disability

  • Acute sense of visual-spatial detail

Children with LDs usually have a keen eye for detail. This makes them likely contenders for a successful run in the surgical arena of medicine or in architecture. Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, Leonardo De Vinci and Pablo Picasso were all visual-spatial individuals!

  • They are able to see the ‘big picture’ in the sense that they can see linkages between different ideas without necessarily being competent in each of the areas the ideas are based in.
  •  Owing to the reason that a child with a learning disability needs to put in more effort and perseverance than a neurotypical child, children with LDs are usually quite hardworking.
  •  They are usually very empathetic and attuned to the needs of others.


  • They are able to express their ideas and needs across to teachers, parents and peers.

Strengths of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

  • Children with ADHD are usually “out of the box” thinkers. They are able to consider alternatives to problems and think of unconventional solutions that may not be apparent to others.
  •  Those with ADHD are usually very persistent. They tend to stick to problems until they figure solutions out. This may seem counterintuitive considering the nature of an attention disorder but the quality of being determined is often associated with individuals with such disorders.
  •  They understand and “put things together” in highly original and creative ways.
  •  They are risk-takers.

If you are a parent to a child with a learning disability or attention disorder, it is essential to appreciate the strengths that accompany these challenges and to remind your child of their capabilities and potential on a regular basis.

Special education schools for children with learning differences can help hone their strengths and honor their interests. Learning styles in such schools are tailored to meet the demands and capabilities of children with LDs. Aaron School is a special education school in New York City that helps cater to the learning differences of children with varying learning disabilities.

Best Colleges for Online Early Childhood Education Programs

Money and time are in shorter supply every day. That, however, should not stop you from achieving your dreams. Instead, you might want to think of alternative routes to the same destination.

Rather than doing a full four year course at a traditional college with the attendant costs for accommodation and living expenses, it is worth considering pursuing your degree online.
It is a great option for those who are already working and cannot afford to take the time out to pursue further education.

As with any online degree offering, you need to make sure you have asked all the right questions before you commit to any course.  There is a plethora of online degrees, in all sorts of different niches. Early Childhood Education is no different. If you love children and want to help them reach their full potential by teaching them, then this is the degree course for you.

Because the end result of this qualification is that you will be teaching young children, most potential employers will want to know that your degree was received from a legitimate, accredited institution.  Some of the best colleges for online degrees in early childhood education based on regional (as opposed to just state) accreditation, costs and reputation are listed for you below.

Post University

This college offers both an Associate’s Degree of Science in Early Childhood Education and a Bachelor’s Degree of Science in Child Studies. It has been accredited since 1972 and offers financial aid to its online students.
What makes the associate program stand out from its peers is that it offers practical experience that can be arranged at a site near you. Classes are small with learning in accelerated eight week modules. With this qualification you can become a preschool teacher, childcare worker or teacher’s assistant.

The bachelor’s degree has a flexible entry system with accelerated eight week modules being offered six times a year, meaning you can basically start your degree whenever it is most convenient to you.

Western Governors University

This college offers a Bachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education. It is a good bet because it is the only exclusively online school that has received accreditation from the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.  In addition, it offers some of the lowest tuition rates available online which is always an attractive proposition.

The course focuses on educating a child from birth through to grade three (around eight years of age) and prepares graduates to be kindergarten or early grade school teachers.

There are many colleges available that will offer you the courses that you want to follow. The best college for you is ultimately the one that ticks off the majority of your personal boxes.

Reading Development in Two Different Contexts:the Case of the English-greek Bilingual Children in UK and in Cyprus


Bilingualism has a unique place within the educational context, since modern technology has minimalised the distances between countries and people. Furthermore, the growing phenomenon of multilingual and multicultural countries and groupings (United Nations, United States, European Union) gives new significance to the issue. Research on bilingualism has been progressing quite rapidly and different disciplines have added their own contributions tothe field. Nevertheless, new questions surface every day and they are usually multiple answers to these questions. This paper also attempts to answer the question whether linguistic diversity is also an inclusive issue. The following study derived from the need to answer similar questions raised by the increasing number of multilingual and multicultural children in primary schools nowadays.

What is evident from the review of studies on bilingualism, are that the multiple factors influencing the bilingual child’s learning (e.g., the level of linguistic competence in the two languages shared by the bilingual child; the “use” of two languages at home, at school, the age of the bilingual child; the language/s used by the parents; the formal education system; etc.) play an important role on bilingual children’s linguistic development. Therefore, bilingualism is a complex issue where research is still ongoing and the limited number of studies on bilingualism provides a variety of findings, which could support different hypotheses.

In this paper, I try to show the different interconnected factors influencing the bilingual English-Greek children’s reading and also the educational implications for the two countries involved, in the light of inclusive policies followed recently across UK and Cyprus. Multiple case-study design was used to explore the factors influencing English-Greek children’s reading within four different school cases, three in UK and one in Cyprus. The data were analyzed against the quantitative and qualitative framework provided in the following section.

Theoretical background

In the last 20 years considerable changes have been taking place in education, that are mostly based upon conceptualization of what “special education” means and whether it should be considered as a separate area of concern (Ainscow, 1999). As a consequence, inclusion in education is a process concerning with the never-ending search to find better ways of responding to diversity. (Ainscow, 2005).

“In the last few years Cyprus is increasingly becoming a less homogeneous society”. The accession to the European Union and the educational imperatives that pluralism entails have an impact on educational system in Cyprus. (Hadjigeorgiou and Papapavlou, 2005). Within the last decade, the educational context of Cyprus has been changing rapidly. A growing number of linguistically and nationally different children have been attending Greek class. Within the existing arrangements, however, many pupils whose their mother tongue is not Greek may be marginalized or even excluded from teaching. Educational inclusion as a process promoting the participation of all students could be the answer to the needs of the children who belong to linguistic diverse groups. According to Ainscow (ibid) inclusion consequently concerns with the identification and removal of barriers. Adding to the latter, language diversity and cultural diversity could be considered such as barriers that could be removed with educational inclusion

The Cyprus Ministry of Education has been attempting to apply inclusive strategies to respond to linguistic diversity by appointing teachers to help bilingual children. Some of the teachers are trained to work with bilinguals, some are not. There is still lack of systematic application of literacy strategies at the Cyprus educational system.

At this section it is also important to refer to some issues relating to the organisational context of primary education in Cyprus, as well as to the teaching of literacy (to bilingual and monolingual children) in primary schools:

1) All primary schools in Cyprus are essentially similar, independent of local context factors (e.g., differential school ethos, administrative styles, faculty cultures).

2) The administration of primary education is highly centralised.

3) Teachers are responsible only for the successful implementation of the goals, objectives and programmes approved by the central office.

4) Bilingual children are taught within the mainstream schools and in certain cases (in areas with a large bilingual population) in special units within the mainstream schools.

UK has been also a rapidly changing educational context with the increasing number of linguistically and culturally diverted children attending primary education nationally.

The model of literacy applied in UK incorporates both top down and bottom up approaches. The literacy strategy is based on searchlights (see following section) and includes both analytic and synthetic phonic approaches to reading. In the following section the English context for beginners in reading is presented.

The programme of study for the reading of English in the National Curriculum in England and Wales states that:


Pupils should be taught to read with fluency, accuracy, understanding and enjoyment, building on what they already know…Pupils should be taught the alphabet, and be made aware of the sounds of spoken language in order to develop phonological awareness (Department for Education and Welsh Office, 1995, p 6).

The following types of knowledge, understanding and skills are mentioned, based on the four basic searchlights (NLS framework, 1998), each of which sheds light on the text. These searchlights are:

Phonic knowledge (sound and spelling)

Graphic knowledge

Word recognition

Grammatical knowledge

Contextual understanding (knowledge of context)

(Department for Education and Welsh Office, 1995, p.7).

The Framework for Teaching (The National Literacy Strategy, 1998)

…covers the statutory requirements for reading and writing in the National Curriculum for English and contributes to the Development of Speaking and Listening (p 3).

In autumn 1998, the National Literacy Strategy was introduced in all schools in England. The goal of the strategy is to raise the standards of achievement in literacy using a detailed set of teaching objectives in each year of primary education. The objectives are defined in the National Literacy Strategy Framework for Teaching (GB. DfEE, 1999). The basis for teaching is a structured daily session (the “literacy hour”). The daily literacy hour is at the heart of the framework.  It involves planned whole class teaching, structured group work and clear routines for independent working.

The study

Data were explored and a number of issues emerged in relation to the following research questions:

1) How does reading develop in monolingual and bilingual learners across four school case studies in two countries (UK and Cyprus)?

2) What factors influence the development of the bilingual English-Greek and monolingual English/Greek children’s reading in English and Greek?

3) What are the implications for teaching in these two countries?

My personal interest on the first two questions was yielded from my long teaching experience with bilingual English-Greek and Greek-English children in England and in Cyprus primary education. During my enrollment with bilingual children, a number of questions arose relating the children’s reading development.  In addition, the difference in reading strategies and educational policies across the two contexts initiated the third question of the possible implications for teaching reading to bilingual and monolingual children in these two countries.


This study explores the educational context of the Greek-English children in UK and Cyprus. Therefore, the study involved four different school case studies and four groups of children.  The sample derived from one urban state elementary school in the “City of Saint Epiphanios”, Limassol (two groups, 50 Monolingual Greek and 50 Bilingual Greek-English) Cyprus; the others were three elementary schools. Two Greek Schools in “Hudders City” England, (one group of 24 English-Greek children) and “Nelson City”, England (one group of 26 English-Greek children). Finally, one English school in “Hudders City”, England (one group of 50 Monolingual English children).


It is important to remember that the study was essentially exploratory in nature. Rather unusually, too, it combined a number of dimensions that are not usually used together.  So, for example, it involved the detailed analysis of individual case studies within the context of a range of statistical information presented.  At the same time, it involved a comparative dimension (comparing school case studies and groups of children within the school case studies in two countries) with reference to the educational and linguistic contexts of England and Cyprus. Specifically, the study was designed to address the way reading develops in England and in Cyprus at two different levels (a macro level and a micro level).

In deciding how to best design a cross-cultural study (studying the different contexts in particular), the researcher should consider complex theoretical considerations about how best to measure and interpret phenomena occurring in the two cultures. Different methods (for example, instrument design, sampling frame, mode of data collection, data analysis and documentation) may also be applied in order to achieve the quality of cross-cultural measurement. To conclude, the multidimensionality of a number of different factors influencing the research process in cross-comparison studies urges the choice of multiple case study and exploratory research as the appropriate methodology for the thorough investigation of the explored factors.


Having considered the overall approach that was taken in relation to the design of the study, in this section I explain in more specific terms the actual procedures followed.  I will start by explaining how a variety of methods were used in carrying out what I believe to be exploratory research that involved multiple-case studies.

In the present exploratory study there were four different school cases. The observation included two different levels: one at the local educational school context (school) and one at the national educational level (national educational level). Quantitative and qualitative data was collected through observation, structured, informal interviews and testing (cognitive and reading tests).

Data were collected and analysed using the four different perspectives developed in Chapter Three (i.e. script dependent, universal, linguistic threshold and linguistic interdependence); ways of data analysis are presented in detail in the Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 9.

This approach is illustrated in the following diagram. The diagram illustrates how the aid of theories provided by monolingual studies was used to investigate reading development in bilingual settings.

Practical Homeschooling Tips – Home Schooling Grants For Parents And Guardians

Home schooling families do have access to grants. If you would be interested in knowing more about what kinds of grants are there for you, you would have to undertake a well-searched inquiry. As per general law one cannot approach the United States government for home school grants; the funds are not too large.

Then what is the way to find such grants? Online surfing is the best way to find out. These grants for home schooling do exist though they are not out in the open and therefore are tough to locate. But as said, these grants do exist and we look at ways at finding them.

At places where large corporations give grant is termed, as corporate grants. Large corporations have frequently given grants to charter & traditional schools. A few of these corporate grants also find their way to home schools but to receive a pie of it you need to know which grants you can send applications for.

Multinational behemoth IBM actively supports initiatives in the field of education; but none of these allowances are for home schools. Wal-Mart does give grants for homeschoolers though. All you need to do is get in touch with the company’s education section and put forward your application for grants. These departments are not authoritative so you could end up talking to various people on the same matter to get the desired results.

In the US home schooling grants from the government home schooling do not exist. Those people who are graduates via home schooling and are going to college can be givenscholarships & grants, but federal governments have nothing as such for families of home schools. Canadian situation is completely opposite however. For instance in British Columbia $175 worth of grant is allowed for every kid that joins a home school prior to 1st November.

Grants are available to home schools but only from other home schools. Grants for every student in the state of Alaska is there for the textbooks in the shape of an annual grant. An association with some kind of a home school support group is very important. You can easily approach your home school group to inquire if they issue grants.

Quite of few do, but that may be as like study material and writing material, only a few select issue grants in monetary terms. Just incase your group of home school has a 501 (c) 3 standing as per US Tax code then it brightens your possibility of receiving a grant.

Last but certainly not the least, check with your ministry or even the church. These organizations, if incase they do not run a home school of their own would be more than happy to be of some help. They could donate books that have religious learning and material required by the home school. But remember receiving grants is not easy and you may be required to knock on a few more doors than you set out to but if you need them then do keeping looking for all kinds of grants possible.

The Importance of Physical Education in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. The country is not developed in Physical Education at all. There are a few government and private physical education colleges are providing Physical Education here. Furthermore, those colleges are given only Bachelor of Physical Education for limited number students. Most of the people are very poor and needy in the country, for this reason, they are not physically fit and healthy.  Only proper physical education can change the situation which offers peoples a chance to learn how to keep themselves healthy with life-long skills without expense money.

Bangladeshi peoples should maintain sound physical fitness to fostering real socio economic development. Our peoples need to be physically active to grow properly.  Regular physical activity increases our self-esteem, social development, weight control, stress management, plying skill development and academic performance ( Nieman, 2002).Physical education actively engages us to learn more skills and be more responsible for our body produce us to understand the importance of living healthy. Physical education is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity. Physical education helps our peoples to maintain fitness, develop muscle strength, and increase our strength.

As a resident of Bangladesh, we need to create awareness about important health and nutrition issues. Physical education provides an excellent opportunity for all peoples to promote the benefits of healthy and nutritious food and cite the ill effects of junk food. Promoting sound eating practices and guidelines for nutrition are some of the very valuable lessons that can be taught through physical education. Physical education lessons about the importance of personal hygiene and importance of cleanliness. Thus the physical education help the peoples to know the important hygiene practices that must be practiced in order to maintain the health and well being throughout the life. In addition to this, the physical education also covers an important aspect that the children have to deal with at the age of puberty. Physical education also impart sex-education and hence help the peoples deal with their queries and doubts about the subject of sexuality.

Quality health and physical education programs can be life-changing for today’s young people in Bangladesh. Physical education can offer to our peoples a well-rounded opportunity to develop their bodies and minds to gain skills that will propel them to success in both the physical and other aspects in life. Quality physical education programs are needed to increase the physical competence, health-related fitness, self-responsibility and enjoyment of physical activity for all peoples in Bangladesh so that they can be physically active for a lifetime (Kamal,2010).

Physical education can influence moral development by improving right judgment mentality in our peoples. They have the opportunity to assume leadership, cooperate with others, question actions and regulations, and accept responsibility for their own behavior. Physical education instills a stronger sense of self-worth in children based on their mastery of skills and concepts in physical activity. They can become more confident, assertive, independent and self-controlled.


Kamal, Rajib. (2010). The Importance of Physical Education in Bangladesh. Boi Prokashony: Dhaka

Teaching Writing through Peer Feedback

Peer Feedback in English as Second Language Writing

Zainurrahman (Indonesia University of Education)


This research was originally aimed to investigate the impact of peer feedback toward the students’ narrative writing and the students’ responses toward peer feedback occurred in the L2 writing classroom. Although many researchers have noted that peer feedback had positiveimpact on students’ language skills especially writing, but peer feedback was originally used to develop students’ writing in L1 during 1970s (Hyland and Hyland, 2006:1). In 2000s, researchers like Zeng (2006), Kamimura (2006), Jiao (2007), and Hirose (2009) investigated the impact of peer feedback in L2 writing classroom and they noted that peer feedback offers many ways to improve students’ writing. However, until this time, peer feedback effectiveness is still debated. Hong (2006), for example, found that students’ had very negative response toward peer feedback activity in L2 and EFL writing classroom. This phenomenon raises an attempt to reinvestigate peer feedback in L2 writing classroom, especially in an Indonesian context. This research revealed that peer feedback is a useful way can be used to improve students’ writing, although the improvement is superficial in some extents.

This research focuses on students’ writing development and their responses toward peer feedback. The basic assumption underpinning this research is that writing is communication or a social process (Hyland (2005:198). Since writing is a social process, then in writing process the writer should be placed as a member of communicator, member of classroomsociety. Placing the writer in this situation gives the writer opportunities to have meaningful inputs from others. In this regard, the students are the writers and narrowing the social dimension in their L2 writing classroom emerges opportunities to negotiate their strength to improve other and their weakness to be strengthened.

Considering the assumption suggested by Hyland above, since peer feedback allows students to negotiate their ideas, commenting and correcting mistakes in their peer’s drafts, offering suggestions for their peer’s draft further development (Spear, 1988; Williams, 1957), then peer feedback can be applied confidently in L2 writing classroom. In the case of students’ attitude toward peer feedback, as hesitated by Hong (2006) that the students’ have very negative impact toward peer feedback, here Jacobs et al (1998) mentioned that they believe that students usually welcome peer feedback as one type of feedback in writing. This research also revealed that the students’ have positive response toward peer feedback; the students did not devalue peer feedback activities in L2 writing classroom.

Related Theories

Peer Feedback

Peer feedback is defined by Yang (in Zeng, 2006) as feedback that is given by peer. In writing activity, peer feedback means having other writer to read and to give feedback on what other writer has written (Hyland, 2005). In this research, since the writers are the students, peer feedback is understood as having other students to read and to give comments, corrections, criticisms, and suggestions on what other students have written.

Providing meaningful feedback, spoken or written, is one of the most important tasks for English writing teachers (Hyland and Hyland, 2006). While teacher feedback has been indicated to be desirable for the students’ writing development, debates continues over whether teacher written feedback should be provided as it is often neglected and misunderstood by students (Williams, 1975). Teacher feedback has been criticized for being product oriented because it occurs most frequently at the end point due to time and class size constrains (Lee, 2009). Whereas, writing as a process should be paid attention to make the students aware and understand that writing is not an instant product (Harmer, 2007). Hyland (2005) illustrates the process of writing that gives feedback and revision more attention. Feedback and revision stages are the recursive processes that take times to produce a good piece of writing, when the class size is needed to be considered, here peer feedback should be considered to be applied in writing classroom.

Peer feedback activities tend to generate more comments on the content, organization, andvocabulary (Lee, 2009:130). This means that peer feedback is not only about how a student makes corrections on his or her friend’s writing, but it is also about how a student’s criticism, suggestion, and point of view generate meaningful improve toward other student’s writing. However, peer feedback also has certain drawbacks those are discussed later on.

Feedback given by peer can be spoken or written feedback. This research focuses on the written feedback given by peer to improve their writing, especially narrative writing. Written peer feedback is given in form of marks, written comments, written correction, and there is form provided for students to give more suggestions.

Peer Feedback and Social Constructionists’ View of Learning

Social Constructionists believe that knowledge is negotiated and best acquired through interaction (Kurt and Atay, 2007). One of the theories supporting this statement is Vygotsky’s theory Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Vygotsky (in Mooney, 2000:83) defines ZPD as the distance between the most difficult task someone can do alone and the most difficult task someone can do with help. Furthermore, Mooney states that Vygotsky believes that a learner in the edge of learning needs an interaction and can benefit from the interaction to enhance his or her learning achievement.

Morris (2008) mentions that ZPD explains the development from an actual level to a potential level. Peer feedback, since it allows students to make negotiation of their strength and weakness (Williams, 1957; Spear, 1988; Hyland, 2005) where the students can make negotiation of ideas, comments, corrections, and suggestions (Zeng, 2006; Kamimura, 2006; Jiao, 2007), provides opportunities for the students to be better in writing, and also reading.

ZPD is one of the theories that support peer feedback (Ferris and Hedgcock, 2005:225). This theory explains why and how the students’ writing skill can be developed through peer feedback. Although it is noted that ZPD pays attention to the interaction between the higher and lower level of interlocutor, it does not mean that peer feedback (where the students might be in the same level) discourage the students’ writing development. The students’ writing development can be occurred when mistakes are corrected, unclearness is clarified, ineffectiveness is criticized, and suggestion is applied in their writing. In offering betterment as mentioned, higher-lower level interaction is not necessarily the case. Students in similar level can do it, although some observed mistakes must be left ignored. Pei (2006:3; as well as Hirose, 2009) mentions that students, sometimes, are not aware that they make mistakes (because they do not know, or they forget it) and peer feedback can stimulate their awareness of their writing mistakes. Students in similar level can remind each other about the mistakes their friend made. This shows that development of writing (as product) in the peer feedback activities (as process) is not always determined by higher-lower interactant. Interaction of students in similar level can generate development of writing.

Furthermore, peer feedback generates development of both the student as the writer and the students as the reader. Kurt and Atay (2007) explain that in peer feedback students do not only compose their writing but also read their friend writing. In reading their friend writing, they are aware that their role is “error searcher” and this awareness makes them to carefully read their friend’s writing. This is in line with Rollinson (2005) who mentions that peer feedback also trains students to be critical reader. However, the importance pointed out here is that, when the student critically and carefully read their friend’s writing, it is possible that they find mistakes that similarly they made on their own writing. This emerges the student (as the reader) to make revision based on their self-awareness, where the friend’s writing becomes “mirror” that reflects their own writing. Therefore, the interaction and the negotiation in the peer feedback activity, as believed by Social Constructionist, generate benefit in two sides: writing and reading.

Peer Feedback: Advantages and Drawbacks

Peer feedback is still hotly debated. Literatures and researches lifted the impacts of peer feedback in writing instruction, especially L2 writing. Various conclusions have been declared, that is, peer feedback is advantageous in one side and disadvantageous in the other side. The criticism toward peer feedback offered by Hong (2006) that the students devalue peer feedback activity, even, they do not like peer feedback at all. The students, according to Hong, commented that they felt being underestimated by negative feedback given by their peer. But this research revealed that the students have seen peer feedback as an interesting way of learning to write. They also said that comment and negative feedback is the evidence that their writing is really read by their peer. Peer feedback generates positive impact if the students are ready and well-trained and prepared by the teacher (Williams, 1957). It can be assumed that peer feedback failure is caused by ignoring this aspect, preparation.

It has been already mentioned that peer feedback plays important role in writing process. Since narrative is defined as the choice of a specific linguistic technique to report or to tell past events, stories, experiences (Labov, 1997), then writing a narrative should be considered as process oriented writing activity. Narrative functions to entertain, to inform, to display sequential events, and those are closely related to the readers’ satisfaction. Therefore, considering feedbacks from the reader must be very important to guarantee the readability of the narrative itself.

A narrative, as well as other text types, should be written in a process oriented scheme where peer feedback activities can take place. Generally, peer feedback might be useful to enhance students’ awareness on the grammatical mistakes and mechanical mistakes. For the example, narrative tells story in the past that means the tenses used mostly past tense (Feez and Joyce, 2000). Students those are not aware this aspect might use inappropriate tenses in their narrative and peer feedback can stimulate their awareness on this kind of mistake. Mechanically, the correct use of punctuation in the (narrative) writing is also important to shape the meaning; here peer feedback may generate correction when the mistakes are observed by the students. Specifically, peer feedback is useful to develop the idea, content, clarity, mechanics, and the organization of the students’ narrative writing (Clark, 2003:119).

When the students are asked to write with sense “to be read” by authentic audience (peers), their writing is better than when they are asked to write to be read by teacher (Clark, 2003:120). As well as writing narrative, the students must be aware that their effort is to tell story, to make the reader entertained, and they should hope the reader’s satisfaction. If the narrative is written as an instant product, without recursive processes (composing-peer feedback-revising), the narrative must be “not ready” to publish.

I am personally confident that the students as readers are experienced in reading narrative. Since short stories and novels are more favorable by undergraduate students than textbooks, the students will relatively easy to identify unclear parts in their peer’s narrative writing, especially in terms of the elements and the clarity of the ideas. However, I am personally doubtful if the students are experienced enough to offer meaningful and significant feedbacks in terms of grammaticality and mechanics. It is assumed that feedbacks and revisions made by the students in writing their narrative could be superficial, because one of the difficulties in peer feedback revealed by the researchers is caused of the lack grammar and mechanics knowledge (Clark, 2003).

Peer feedback in process oriented narrative writing can be successfully done if the teacher provides guidance. Most students, especially younger and less able writers, need direct instruction in evaluating writing and guidance in responding to the writing of peers (Clark, 2003:122). Therefore, the teacher needs to prepare feedback form or narrative rubric to help students doing peer feedback. The feedback form can be in form of leading questions in regarding the clarity of idea, the completeness of the elements, and the schematic structures of the writing. Peer feedback activity that is recursively done in the process of narrative writing will develop the students’ narrative writing mostly organizationally. Feedbacks given by the student-reader will support the student-writer to make meaningful development due to their narrative writing readability.

Peer feedback in narrative writing does not only promise the development of writing based on feedbacks given, but it also promises the development of reading ability, to stimulate self-awareness on mistakes and weaknesses in their own narrative writing (Kurt and Atay, 2007; Rollinson, 1995). When a student finds that his or her peer’s narrative writing contains unreasonable complication or resolution, it might remind the student to reflect his or her own narrative; the student must be “embittered” of what feedback given for his or her complication or resolution. Therefore, process oriented approach, where peer feedback activity takes place repeatedly and recursively is better for the students in writing narrative than writing narrative as an instant product. The more peer feedback in the narrative writing process, the more narrative writing development the student can achieve.


It is found that peer feedback improves students’ narrative writing. Generally, students’ narrative writing develops in terms of grammaticality and mechanics. These developments are classified into general development. General development is the development which occurs across genre such as grammar and mechanics.

Students’ grammatical development can be directly indentified thorough the revisions made by the students from draft to draft. Mostly, grammatical development achieved by the students is in terms of the appropriate use of past tense, sentence pattern, and concord. Feedbacks from the responders given to the students encourage them to revise their draft to be better in grammar. Revisions made by the students in this regard are based on the feedbacks given or based on their self-awareness when they read their peer’s drafts. The students’ are aware that they may make similar mistakes as their peers make. This self-awareness is an evidence that peer feedback also provides chance to make reflection through reading peer’s drafts. It means that peer feedback does not merely give chance to comment or correct peer’s drafts, but it also provides possibility that peer’s drafts can reflect each student’s own draft. The students are supported by their role as “mistakes searcher” and this role makes the students more critical on their own writing. This proves what Rollinson (2005) stated that peer feedback also trains students to be critical reader on their own writing.

The mechanical development achieved by the students is in terms of the appropriate use of punctuation and diction, including word spelling. Students’ drafts develop mechanically since they are given feedbacks from their responders to correct punctuation misuses and to correct misspelled words. Mostly, the punctuation misuse found and commented by the responders are about the use of comma and quotation. As well as in grammatical development, the students are also made aware of their own mechanical mistakes when they read their peer’s drafts. However, the revisions made in this regard is superficial and this proves what Clark (2003) mentioned that revision made by the students in peer feedback processes is superficial.

However, students’ grammar and mechanics knowledge are the most important thing must be considered by the researcher. Students in this research are lack grammar and mechanics knowledge. This is identified through the unobserved mistakes found in the students’ drafts. Those mistakes are unobserved both by the student-writer and the student-reader or responder. The students’ knowledge concerning grammar and mechanics has influential impact on their ability to identify grammatical and mechanical mistakes in their peer’s drafts. The unobserved mistakes, grammatical and mechanical mistakes, show that students’ ability to identify mistakes in their peer’s drafts need to be improved for the peer feedback is done successfully in the future.

The next development achieved by the students is organizational development which is classified into substantial development. Organizational development covers the revisions made by the students in terms of the clarity of idea, the completeness of the narrative elements, and the schematic structure of the students’ narrative writing. It is called substantial development because it shows how the students’ narrative as specified genre in this research develops through peer feedback.

The development of idea and its clarity can be identified through the revisions made by the students which are based on the feedback given by the responder. The students’ ideas in their 1st drafts are unclear. The lack of idea clarity is triggered by title-content disconnection. Feedbacks given in this aspect focus on how to make title and content of the writing match, and the students found that the feedbacks given have improved their ideas and this can be seen from the title revisions made by the students.

The development of the elements and schematic structure is also found in the students’ drafts. Mostly, the students wrote their orientation verbosely. Through the feedbacks and the revisions, it is found that students’ narrative orientations have developed more focus and clearer. It is also found that students’ orientation and complication in their 1st draft do not match or lack of description. In their later drafts, by considering feedbacks given by the responder, students then add descriptions to make their orientation and complication match. Students’ narrative writing also developed in terms of the connection of complication and resolution. In the students’ drafts it is found that they do not put reasons of how or why the resolution comes and in the later drafts they put descriptions to make their resolution explainable. The development of the element and the structure show that peer feedback helps students to write their narrative in better way. Since the students are allowed to negotiate their points of view, the students can benefit the negotiated view to create or to revise their narrative to be better.

From the description above, it is concluded that peer feedback has an influential impact on the students’ narrative writing. The development achieved by the students through peer feedback can be classified into three developments they are grammatical development, mechanical development, and organizational development.

The students commented that peer feedback is effective for some reasons. Firstly, it enables the students to know mistakes and weaknesses. Secondly, it allows students to consider peer’s or responder’s views. Thirdly, it provides chances to know the reader’s perception on the students’ drafts. Fourthly, it gives more opportunities to the teachers or lecturers to do other works during peer feedback processes. Peer feedback, since it provides links or channels for students (as writer and reader) to negotiate knowledge and strength, enables students to be good writers and to be critical readers. Peer feedback also make the students learn that what one believes as true or correct is not always true or correct for other.

As already mentioned, students’ ability to identify mistakes in their peers’ drafts is challenged and this invites difficulties in peer feedback activities. Twelve students commented that they were unconfident of their ability to identify, to mark their peers’ mistakes; mostly in grammar.

Students’ language proficiency and ability to identify mistakes are the most influential aspect during peer feedback processes. Lack of grammar knowledge made students have difficulty in figuring out what is correct and what is incorrect is and this was realized as one of the peer feedback drawbacks.

Another difficulty in peer feedback activity covered through interview is the product or the draft itself. The students sometimes complained that they could not identify certain punctuation because it was written by hand and not by computer. For example two students commented that they sometimes could not distinguish comma and period, colon and semicolon because the drafts were handwritten.


Anderson, Mark and Anderson, Kathy. 1997. Text Types in English 2. MacMillan Education Australia PTY LTD.

Britton, Bruce. K and Pellegrini, A. D. 1990. Canonicality and Consciousness in Child Narrative. Narrative Thought and Narrative Language, pp. 131-133

Caudery, Tim. 1995. What the “Process Approach” Means to Practicing Teachers of Second Language Writing Skills. TESL-EJ. Volume 1. No.4

Christie, F. and Derewinka, B. 2008. School Discourse. New York: Continuum.

Clark, Irene. L. 2003. Concepts in Composition: Theory and Practice in the Teaching of Writing. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Creswell, John. W. 1997. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Sage Publications. International Educational and Professional Publisher. Thousand Oaks London New Delhi.

Evans, Virginia. 2000. Successful Writing Proficiency. Express Publishing.

Feez, Susan and Joyce, Helen. 2000. Writing Skills: Narrative and Non-Fiction Text Types. Phoenix Education.

Ferris, Dana. R and Hedgcock, John. S. 2005. Teaching ESL Composition: Purpose, Process, and Practice. Second Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.

Greenbaum, Sidney and Nelson, Gerald. 2002. An Introduction to English Grammar: Second Edition. Longman.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. How to Teach Writing. Longman

Hirose, Keiko. 2009. Cooperative Learning in English Writing Instruction through Peer Feedback. Aichi Prefectural University

Hong, Fei. 2006. Students Perception of Peer Response Activity in English Writing Instruction. CELEA (Bimonthly) Aug. 2006. Vol. 29 No. 4

Hyland, K., and Hyland F. 2006. Feedback in Second Language Writing: Context and Issues.Cambridge University Press.

Hyland, Ken. 2005. Second Language Writing. Cambridge University Press.

Jacobs, G. M., Curtis, A., Braine, G., & Huang, S. Y. 1998. Feedback on Students Writing: Taking the middle Path. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7, 307-317.

Jiao, Luo Yu. 2007. Application of Cooperative Learning in Teaching College English Writing. US-China Foreign Language. ISSN 1539-8080, USA. May 2007, Volume 5, No.5 (Serial No.44).

Kamimura, Taeko. 2006. Effects of Peer Feedback on EFL Student Writers at Different Levels of English Proficiency: A Japanese Context. TESL Canada Journal. Vol. 23, no. 2, Spring 2006

Kurt and Atay, 2007.The Effects of Peer Feedback on the Writing Anxiety of Prospective Turkish Teachers of EFL. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education

Labov, William. 1997. Some Further Steps in Narrative Analysis. The Journal of Narrative and Life History.

Lee, Nancy Shzh chen. 2009. Written Peer Feedback by EFL Students: Praise, Criticism, and Suggestion. Komaba Journal of English Education.

Lim, Jeong Wan. 2007. Responding to Students’ Writing: Peer and Teacher Feedback. Modern English Education, 8 (2), 59-74.

Montague, Nicole. 1995. The Process Oriented Approach to Teaching Writing to Second Language Learners. New York State Association for Bilingual Education Journal. Vol. X. p13-24.

Mooney, Carol Garhart. 2000. Theories of Childhood: An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky. Redleaf Press.

Morris, Clifford. 2009. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development. Available at:

Pei, Tiow Sing . 2006. (Thesis) A Case Study: The Use of Higher Proficiency Peer Feedback to Improve the Writing Performance Of Lower Proficiency Learners. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Rollinson, Paul. 2005. Using Peer Feedback in the ESL Writing Class. ELT Journal: Jan 2005; 59, 1; ProQuest Education Journals pg. 23

Spear, Karen. I. 1988. Sharing Writing: Peer Response Groups in English Classes.Boynton/Cook Publisher.

Traci. 1999. Ten Narrative Writing Prompts Available at:

Williams, Jessica. 1957. Teaching Writing in Second and Foreign Language Classroom. McGraw Hill.

Zeng, Yanhong. 2006. Peer Feedback in College SLW Classroom. Sino-US English Teaching, ISSN 1539-8072, USA. Mar. 2006, Volume 3, No.3 (Serial No.27)

How Does A Special Education 504 Plan Differ From An IEP?

The day your child is diagnosed with a learning or cognitive disability can be a difficult one. First the disbelief – the questions, the surprise. Then the emotional – tears – worries about the future, worries that your child won’t have an easy path in the world, the mourning of the possibilities that you might feel have been closed to your child as a result of the diagnosis. Finally, you come to an understanding and acceptance of the diagnosis and the issues at hand. That’s when the work begins. For the next several years , you can expect to deal with experts of all kinds, with special education teachers and program administrators and therapists…all those people whose job it is to take care of your child, to ensure that your child receives the educational and social services they deserve, the services mandated by law. Every parent soon comes to learn, that as good as the intentions of a lot of these people are, the parent has to be an advocate for their child. If you don’t have a good understanding of what is going on in your child’s classroom, of the services and different educational programs provided for children in exceptional circumstances and with differing special needs, your child may not be accessing the services he or she deserves.

Trying to wade through the educational jargon can be difficult. There are many confusing terms parents of children with special needs have to learn when it comes to the world of education. A couple of important phrases you’ll have to understand from the very beginning of your child’s school career are Special Education 504 Plan and IEP. How do they differ, what can you expect from each, who do they serve, what laws do they each fall under, and where do you turn if your local School District isn’t fulfilling their responsibilities ?

In the most basic terms, an IEP is a specialized educational plan specific to your child that is governed by a federal special education law for kids with disabilities, it covers 13 particular diagnoses, It must be a written document, and there are people in specific positions within the school district who must be involved with its creation. It is also mandated in the law that parents must be involved with the creation of IEPs.

A Special Education 504 Plan, on the other hand, comes from a federal civil rights law (not an education law) that was put into place to stop discrimination against those with disabilities, including children in schools. A 504 Plan covers other disabilities beyond those in the IDEA . This would include learning disabilities and other cognitive disabilities that do not qualify for an IEP. It is not necessary that this be a written plan, though in many cases it will be. Also it is not mandated who within the school district / school must have responsibility for its creation. Regardless of whether your child is identified as needing a 504 Plan or an IEP – your child is going to need an advocate. As a parent, you are your child’s only permanent advocate. It’s important to remember that as nice as they might be, for those who work within the school districts, your child is just one of many, and the sad truth is that if you don’t keep on top of what is happening in the classroom, and with your child’s educational plan, whatever kind it is, it’s very likely your child with special needs won’t access all the services they need to succeed and thrive. It is important to be involved and aware.

Bowling in Physical Education Class

Bowling in physical education class is a fun way to teach kids cooperation and coordination skills.  Physical Education bowling is different from regular bowling in many ways but the biggest difference is the equipment that is used.  Regular bowling balls and pins are not used.  What is used are rubberized plastic or foam balls and plastic or foam pins.  The balls that are used can weigh from 1.5 lbs to 5 lbs depending on the material they are made of.  These ball are made for physical education class only.  They are not made to be used at a real bowling ally.  Bowling physical education programs are recommended for grade levels 3-5.

There are a couple ways to play.

One way is sort of like soccer.  First you set up teams of about 5 depending on how many students you have.  Each team will have 4 rovers and 1 pin keeper.  The rovers stay out of the pin area and they use the balls to try to knock down the opposing teams pins.  They pass the ball and shoot by rolling the ball on the ground. Tossing or throwing the ball is not allowed.  The rovers also can block the opposing teams passes or shots using their feet or hands.  The pin keepers stay in the pin area and try to protect their pins and also pass the balls back to their team mates.  The game starts with pin keeper passing out the balls to their rovers who begin the game on their half of the court. The game ends when all of one teams pins are down. (See diagram below)


  • Players must roll the ball to pass (no throwing the ball)
  • Rover can only take 2 steps with ball in hand
  • Rover can not enter the pin area
  • Players are aloud to block passes or shots with hands or feet
  • Pin keepers can arrange the pins anyway they want
  • Adult supervision required

Items Needed:

  • Bowling Pins
  • Bowling Balls
  • Scrimmage Vests


You can play the way above or you can play with a bowling lane just like real bowling.  With this type of bowling you will want to get a bowling lane.  This is played just like regular bowling where you keep score with the number of pins knocked down.  You can also include strikes and spares.  The number of frames in regular bowling is 10 but you can modify this number to adjust for time constraints also if you have players taking turn setting up the pins.  Buying a backstop would be a good idea for this game.  The back stop will keep the pins in the same area so it will be easier to pick up the pins that are knocked down. You really have full creative control over this type of bowling to fit the number of students and time that you have.Rules:

  • (No throwing the ball)
  • Take Turns
  • Adult supervision required

Items Needed:

  • Bowling Pins
  • Bowling Balls
  • Bowling Lane
  • (Back Stop optional)

If you are looking for more information and prices on physical education bowling products go to .

Single Dad Scholarships – Take Advantage of Free $10,000 Grants to Go Back to School

If you are reading this, you have probably been thinking about going back to school and be able to either move up in your career, ask for a promotion and a raise or simply change careers completely. Look, a lot of dads have to make miracles and balance their current job with their family obligations and perhaps you have been taking a class here and a course there but without making any real progress because you can’t afford to.

You Can Win $10,000 For Your Studies For Free!

Listen, everyone knows how incredibly difficult it can be to balance family responsibilities with a career. But in order to become financially independent and really make a difference in your life and the life of those around you is by improving your skills and keep studying and learning.

*** Click Here to Browse Scholarships for Dads and Get Your $10,000 Scholarship ***

The Obama administration has made available scholarships for moms to push them into going back to school and now there are several programs aimed at helping dads as well. In the past few months, fathers and single fathers around the country have been taking advantage of scholarships for single fathers, scholarships for dads and other education grants for single dads.

How To Apply For A Scholarships For Working Parents

Registering to take advantage of any of the scholarships for working fathers is easy. All you have to do is complete the registration process which involves typing in your contact information like phone, name and address. Then view information about schools and online courses and that is it. You are enrolled into the monthly drawing for a scholarship for dads.

The next step is to Click Here Now to enter your information and get a FREE Scholarship For Dads. You can Win $10,000 For Your Education!

The Collaborative Initiative in a High Achieving School: Working Together to Achieve Success

Collaborative teaching has been defined in many ways in recent research. Perhaps the  most descriptive and appropriate moniker is “co-teaching.” In true co-teaching, two or more educators possessing distinct sets of knowledge and skills (for example, a general educator and a special educator) work together to teach academically heterogeneous groups of students in the general education classroom (Bauwens and Hourcade 1995). Many administrators in recent years have taken a definition such as this, placed two professionals in the classroom, crossed their fingers, and hoped for the best. Dr. Marilyn Friend, the widely perceived “guru” of the collaborative initiative from the University of North Carolina-Greensboro, more sharply focused the definition as Two (or more) educators or other professionally certified staff (not a paraprofessional) share instructional responsibility for a single group of students primarily in a single classroom or workspace to teach required curriculum with mutual ownership, pooled resources, and joint accountability although each individual’s level of participation may vary (Friend, 2008).

The need for co-teaching is simple, during the 1995-96 academic year, three-fourths of students with disabilities received most or all of their educational programs in general education classrooms. That trend is likely to continue into the foreseeable future (USDepartment of Education 1998). The focus on over-identification of special education students and the introduction of Response to Intervention (RTI) added to the urgency of finding solutions to the new classrooms of America.

The belief that co-teaching was a common-sense approach to the new challenges educators were facing inspired our faculty at Western Albemarle High School to incorporate a collaborative initiative as part of our journey of continuous improvement. This is a decision that has helped to enable more students in the school to experience success than have ever before. In just two years, there is significant data to indicate that this initiative is playing a major role in increased student achievement.  It is a story that needs to be shared.

Western Albemarle High School is a suburban high school of 1,100 students located in Crozet, Virginia, just west of Charlottesville. Students are traditionally high achieving with little diversity racially or socioeconomically. SAT, Standards of Learning, and Advanced Placement test scores are usually high and classroom grades are very good as well. Most discipline issues revolve around attendance concerns such as being tardy and skipping. Parent involvement is high and many, if not most of the teachers, have been at the school for more than a decade.

Until three years ago, students were recommended by teachers to be scheduled into homogeneous classes based on achievement levels. These tiers included practical, standard, advanced, honors, and advanced placement classes. In addition, a number of students with IEP’s were placed in self-contained special education classes.

The brief summary of the school might suggest that it is a strong educational institution with minimal academic concerns. High test scores, few discipline issues, excellent parent involvement, and experienced staff certainly do not indicate a school in crisis. But as the metaphor of the onion suggests, one often has to peel back the layers to find the real issues.

No Child Left Behind federal and state guidelines motivated the school’s administration after the 2006-2007 school year to look more deeply than the superficial excellence that the casual observer may notice. That deeper look revealed that underneath the 90% average pass ratescalculated by the total number of students taking the eleven end-of-course Standards of Learning tests for all students were the students with an Individualized Learning Plan who earned a 74% on the same eleven assessments. Furthermore, these special education students did not make Adequate Yearly Progress in four areas – a result that was actually worse than the year before.. So, the continuing rising level to qualify for Adequate Yearly Progress as well as the downward trend in scores of students identified with an IEP presented a problem that needed to be solved.

At a special education meeting in the spring of 2007, Kevin Kirst, the Albemarle County Director of Special Education, issued the following challenge, “If we wait until students are ready to work on challenging standards by virtue of having mastered basic skills, they might not ever work on challenging standards. Exposure to content helps develop knowledge networks.” These words provided the impetus for the implementation of a true co-teaching model based on the work by Dr. Friend. The result was the formation of a proposal to collapse the standard and practical levels (the lowest two levels at the school) into one level, creatively referred to now as the standard/practical level.

Rationale for the combined levels included the fact that there were a number of special education students who were assigned to practical and/or self-contained classes who were not being exposed to the curriculum and therefore not passing the Standards of Learning End-of-Course assessments. Additionally, students in practical classes were earning a disproportionate number of discipline referrals and 12% of those students were showing a grade of F on their report cards. The minimal performance of many students identified for special education services clearly indicated that academic needs were not being met.

The decision to allow the school to collapse levels was not made until early summer prior to the 2007-2008 school year. Although the other two county high schools in the district had already collapsed their standard and advanced level classes to form an academic level, the administration at Western did not believe that collapsing the upper levels was an appropriate move for the student population of the school. There were concerns about a lack of consistency regarding leveling from Central Office. The school liaison to the central office, Tom Nash, the former Executive Director for Intervention and Prevention Services, was skeptical about the potential for success and concerned about the lack of consistency in the county. Even with these reservations, Mr. Nash facilitated the implementation of the collapsing of these levels. As the initiative took roots and started to grow, Tom Nash became one of the programs biggest supporters. The school will always be grateful to him for his courage and unwavering commitment.

The decision to collaborate as many core area standard/practical classes as possible was made administratively. It certainly met with some resistance, justifiably so, as some teachers had three preparations, did not have common planning, and were working with other staff members that they may not have had a previous relationship. It was difficult to get general educators to give up some control of their classes, and just as difficult to get some special educators to step-up to the plate and truly share planning, delivery, and assessment of instruction. Some teachers wanted the school to pilot a handful of classes, but time was short and immersion seemed to be the quickest way to reach students who were failing to learn in larger numbers than ever before. The following explanation was distributed to all standard/practical collaborators:

 Practical/Standard Classes

In an effort to better serve our student population, we have decided to collaborate our standard/practical classes. In doing so, we have attempted to place a special education teacher with a regular education teacher with a goal of no more than 24 students in a class. We hope that this will help us to meet what Kevin Kirst refers to as the “Curriculum Challenge” and give special education students more access to the full curriculum. We are currently trying to organize a significant professional development plan to address the needs of the collaborative classroom and target that as a point of emphasis for the year.


We have attempted to give collaborative teams common planning whenever possible. We are considering how PLC time can/should be used for those teachers who do not share common planning. In a couple of situations, collaborative teachers do not share common planning or PLC time due to part-time assignments or other complications. In the future we will continue to address these issues and find solutions.

In an effort to provide better service to the core area collaborative teams, we sought to hire teachers who were comfortable in planning and delivering instruction in the classroom as well as completing the related assessments. We have also placed current staff in what we believe to be positions of strength as well.

Professional Development had to happen quickly. We were fortunate to acquire the services of Dr. Sarah Armstrong who had resigned her position as an Assistant Superintendent of Staunton City Schools (Virginia) to do consulting work around the Commonwealth and surrounding area. Dr. Armstrong had some significant experience with not only co-teaching, but brain research as well. Her experience, knowledge, and calm demeanor were a definite catalyst to a more successful implementation process. Dr. Armstrong did a workshop for our teachers in October that addressed strategies for planning as well as delivery of instruction. Over the first three years of our Collaborative Initiative, Dr. Armstrong has continued to work patiently with administrators, faculty, and staff to find more successful methods to reach students and more efficient ways to work together. Financial support provided to the school by county special education funds and staff development coffers were critical to the implementation of the program.

Once the professional development program was in place, the next step had to be to find ways to convince teachers to take more ownership of the initiative. A Collaborative Consensus team was organized. The team consisted of representatives from each of the core areas, the Special Education Department, the School Counseling Office, Building-level Administrators, and Central Office Administrators.  As the program continued to grow over the past three years, two experienced collaborative teachers received a stipend to be the lead collaborative team. This team has taken over many of the professional development opportunities that Dr. Armstrong once did. The school still contracts Dr. Armstrong to do observations, meet with teacher teams, and provide consulting

Special Education Centers Offer Excellent Programs For Students With Disabilities

When a child underperforms in school the first persons to get affected by it is parents. They are often baffled as to the cause of the problem and feel that it is the child’s inattentiveness that is causing it. However the problem can be deeper. The child may have genuine issues such as a learning disability which prevents them from using their abilities to understand what is being taught. Such disabilities vary from mild to severe. Usually teachers catch up on the child’s problem and inform parents about it so that they can send them to special classes that correct it.  There are many special education New York state centers where your child can get exactly the kind of assistance needed for their learning problem.

Special education centers have study programs that are tailored to address specific problems that a child is facing in learning. The problem may be something like hearing words inccorrectly, difficulty in reading comprehensive, dyslexia, and much more. They examine a child’s skills to find out what they are good at and what is missing so that they can address it and help them to develop their mental faculties. They will use proven methods to address such issues so that they are resolved. Hence the results are excellent enabling the child to learn better and get good grades in their exams.

One such proven approach that they use is the Orton-Gillingham method. This is a multisensory method used to resolve dyslexia. Children affected by this problem find it difficult to read, spell and write. With Orton-Gillingham tutoring their reading comprehension enhances. They are able to do paraphrasing, draw conclusions, retell stories and much more. They can understand what a topic says and the vital details of passages under it. They can also teach children with ADD and ADHD so that they can understand their subjects and learn what is needed to pass exams. This includes understanding letter and word formation, reading passages of text and understanding them and imbibing methods that help stay focused on what is being taught. Children with ADD/ADHD are hyperactive, distracted, day dreaming hence they need special attention in learning and mixing with society. Special education New York state learning centers offer programs that are perfect for children with this problem.

Children with special learning needs require attention to helps them cope with what they need to know. Without such assistance they will find it difficult to live in their community. They need to be able to communicate and do things independently just like everyone else. Special education centers offer them the means to get skills and overcome their learning challenges through teaching methods that are specially devised for their problems. They can attend customized learning sessions that help address individuals learning problems. This enables them to imbibe what they need to learn faster and they show good results in school. If your child is having a learning disability do not delay helping them any further and enroll them into a special education center. The earlier you get your child enrolled into a program the better off they are in helping themselves in studies and other activities.

Teacher Resources: Primary Teacher Training Certificate Courses In India

A teacher can motivate or demoralize a student; it depends on how the teacher conducts himself in class, the attitude he / she bears towards students, the scruples and principles that he upholds and propagates through his / her daily activities in class and outside. The teachers get young impressionable minds which they can influence easily and this is a major responsibility not to be taken lightly. To truly appreciate the duties and obligations of a teacher one must be adequately trained for the job.

Only trained teachers can ensure the proper development of the children entrusted to them. A teacher becomes an expert in the job only after years of training and experience. A teacher has to face many challenges and perform many tasks in classroom and at school. A good teacher training course at a recognized and affiliated institute ensures that the teacher aspirant is up to the task post certification.

Since the needs of the primary students are different from the secondary students, the primary teachers and secondary teachers are required to take up different teacher’s training courses.

Online teacher Resources:Qualifications for Teacher Training Courses

Pre Primary and Primary school teachers have to pass 12th standard with at least 50% marks aggregate. In addition to the academic records, the personal aptitude and skills are also important.

To join Secondary and Senior Secondary Teacher Training course, the candidates must have a post graduate degree in the subject they wish to teach in.

Primary Teacher’s training is even more important as elementary education plays a very important role in a person’s life. As they need to take care of the emotional needs along with developing the cognitive skills of the students primary Teacher’s training is regarded as essential. Because of theses reasons Primary Teacher’s training (PTT) is made compulsory in various states for appointment as primary teachers.

District Institute of Education & Training, ( Buniadi Shiksha Bhawan) Tirap Changlang 792120

Arujakiya Islamia Teacher’s Training College  PO. Phulwarisharif Patna 801505

Primary Teachers Education College  P.O. Konbir Naotoli Gumla Dt. 835229

St. Teresa’s Primary Teacher Education College  PO. Bettiah

Primary Teachers Education College  Gurwa, PO. Sitagarha Dist. Hazaribagh 825301

SPG Women’s Primary Teacher’s Education College  G.E.L. Church Compound PO. Church Road Ranchi 834001

Ursuline Primary Teachers Education College  P.O. & Dist. Lohardaga 835302

Carmel TeachersTraining Institute  P.O. Pakyond East Sikkim 737106

District Institute of Education & Training  Tathangchen, Edn. Deptt. Govt. of Sikkim Raj Bhawan Gangtok 737103

Banipur Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Unit II, PO Banipur Distt. North 24 Paraganas 743233

Belakoba Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Prasanna Nagar Distt. Jalpaiguri 735153

Berhampur Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Berhampur Murshidabad Distt. 742101

Bibhuti Bhusan Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Ghatbour Via-Bongaon North 24 Parganas Distt. 743235

Dharmada Government Primary Teachers Training Institute  PO Dharmada Distt. Nadia 741138

District Institute of Education & Training  P.O. Chhandar, Bankura Dt.

Govt. Primary T.T. Institute  44/1 Saheed Nalini Bagchi Road P.O. Berhampur, Murshidabad 742101

Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Near Rail Gumti Cooch Behar Distt. 736101

Jalpaiguri Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Shilpasamitipura Jalpaiguri Dt 735101

Kalimpong Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training  Institute PO. Kelomal Midnapore Dt. 721627

MD. Bazar Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Md. Bazar Birbhum Distt. 731132

Prajnananda Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Bara Jagulia, Nadia Dist. 741221

Ramakrishan Mission Ashram Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  P.O. Sargachhi Ashram Murshidabad Dt. 742134

Ramakrishna Mission Ashram Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  Unit II, P.O. Sarisha South 24 Parganas Distt. 743368

Ramakrishna Mission Boy’s Home Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  PO Rahara Distt. North 24 Paraganas 743186

Sabrakone Govt. Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  PO Sabrakone Distt. Bankura 722149

Saroj Nalini Primary Teacher’s Training Institute  23/1, Ballygunge Station Road Kolkata 700019

United Missionary Primary Teachers Training College  1, Ballygunge Circular Road Calcutta 700019

Teacher Professional Development for Teaching Reading Strategies

One of the most important things that children learn in school is how to read. Teaching reading strategies to young students can help prepare them for the rest of their academic career, and depending on the effectiveness of the reading strategies, it can set students up to succeed (or not). Teacher professional development for teaching reading strategies is critical to equip students with the skills they need in all areas of their education.

There are a few different types of students that teachers will have to learn to teach reading strategies to. First, there are the students that are behind in their reading skills. In our society it is so important to be literate, and you cannot get an advanced education unless you master reading skills. The ability to read is inherent in all people, so it is possible to teach anyone to read – those that are struggling probably just need some extra attention, extra patience, and extra motivation. You need to let these students know that you have high expectations of them and that you will help them to succeed.

For students that are reading at their grade level, you can still help them to improve. Often teachers focus too much on the students that are behind and they neglect the students that are performing at the average level – but if teachers spent more time with those at the average level, they could become more advanced! Always make sure to push yourself to help all of your students to improve, not just those that need it most.

For all students, the best way to improve is to read more frequently. Reading fluently only comes with practice. Those who struggle will have to read more to get better – even though it’s difficult. Teacher professional development courses can help you to learn methods to encourage your students to read more and get past the hard times. The students that are ahead of their grade level are often the ones that read for fun. They just keep reading and improving and it gets easier and easier for them to succeed.

One more tip for teachers is to get the parents involved with the students and reading. Try alternating reading sentences (for young kids) or paragraphs between the parent and the child. Maybe have the student read to his younger sibling, if he has one. Kids should always have access to a variety of books so they can find what they enjoy. Maybe a child is not bad at reading, but they don’t like what they are reading in school. In that case, if you can help them find something they enjoy reading, they will be more motivated to get better at reading so they can learn more about this thing they are passionate about.

In summary, teachers should absolutely invest in learning teaching reading strategies, and this can often be done through teacher professional development. There are numerous techniques and tips for teaching reading, so teachers should be exposed to as many as possible so that they can be better equipped to help their students succeed.

Opportunities Abound for Bilingual Workers

Adding skill with multiple languages to an existing education can only improve a resume with potential employers. The demand for speaking and writing skills in multiple languages drives the employment search across a variety of careers, and workers with bilingual proficiency enjoy the benefits.

¿Habla usted español? The nation’s Hispanic community is nearly 33 million people strong and pumps almost a trillion dollars annually into the U.S. economy. This powerful group is only expected to grow stronger in the coming years, increasing the need for bilingual proficiency in the workplace.

Bilingual Workers Meet a Growing Demand
Hispanic and Asian populations in the U.S. are expected to triple over the next fifty years, according to population projections by the U.S. Census Bureau. With the number of non-Hispanic whites dropping to one-half of the total population by 2050, the American demographic is expected to look vastly different.

In this evolving cultural picture, bilingual workers in skilled trades become more and more valuable. Opportunities for Spanish speakers can be easily found in finance, social work, business, and healthcare. On the West Coast, job seekers speaking Japanese, Chinese, and Mandarin are looking more attractive to prospective employers.

Popular Industries for Bilingual Workers
From translation to tourism, government to healthcare, trained bilingual workers are seeing more career opportunities than ever. Here are just a few of the most popular industries for workers with bilingual skill:

• Law Enforcement
• Civic Organizations
• Social Service Agencies
• Banks and Financial Institutions

Bilingual employees may enjoy higher salaries than those who only speak one language. In law enforcement, it is common to see hiring bonuses for bilingual workers in addition to monthly stipends.

High-Tech Bilingual Careers
As the world becomes more dependent on technology, the need grows to translate it to a wider audience. A day in the life of a bilingual IT worker may involve:

• Working with a Spanish-speaking client in a tech support environment
• Translating help files and user guides for global product releases
• Creating software applications tailored to a worldwide market

Specialized jobs in technical writing, customer service, and software development benefit greatly from multiple language support, and bilingual ability is typically preferred by potential employers.

Healthcare and Social Services Careers
Careers in healthcare can be lucrative and rewarding and, for bilingual workers, they may be easier to find. Jobs in hospitals, private offices, and public clinics can be enhanced bybilingual workers, who provide a necessary skill in communicating with patients who do not speak English.

In the social services industry, workers trained as cross-cultural counselors, social workers, and case workers can use their bilingual skills to communicate with a wider range of clients.

Bilingual Ability in the Business World
“Bilingual and bicultural Latinos can offer valuable assets to any firm wishing to compete in the global market,” says Graciela Kenig in her book Best Careers for Bilingual Latinos. Investment firms, import/export companies, and marketing firms traditionally have a strong need for workers that can add multiple languages to their proficiency in business. Typical tasks for a bilingual employee in business might include:

• Translating internal documents for localization
• Hosting clients or guests from foreign offices
• Creating marketing materials to appeal specifically to Hispanic or bilingual culture

Consulting is another popular field for workers withbilingual or multilingual proficiency. Bilingualconsultants bridge the gap between clients and business operating in two separate cultures. The consulting field is expected to grow faster than average in the next decade, as the U.S. moves further into the global market.

TEACH Grants for Bilingual Teachers
Bilingual teaching is always an in-demand career, but many students don’t know that they can drop their federal student aid debt by taking on a career in bilingual education. Obtaining a TEACH Grant may mean up to $4,000 per year for higher education, if students intend to teach in a bilingual education program after graduation.

Federal Student Aid Cancellation
When federal student aid debt comes from Perkins Loans, a teaching career may mean loan forgiveness. Each year a teacher serves full time in a public or nonprofit elementary school in foreign languages, bilingual education, or other high-need areas, a percentage of Perkins Loan is canceled:

• 15 percent canceled per year for the first and second years of service,
• 20 percent canceled for the third and fourth years, and
• 30 percent canceled for the fifth year.

After five years of service, the total Perkins Loan debt is forgiven. Working to educate the next generation is its own reward, and canceling student debt is just another incentive to begin a career in education.

Enhance & Market Bilingual Ability
Workers with proficiency in multiple languages are a valuable asset across industry, but it’s up to the individual to prove their value to prospective employers. Here are a few tipsbilingual workers can use to highlight and enhance their skills:

• Highlight bilingual ability in the interview. Language skills should always be noted on a resume, but prospective employees should also note proficiency during a face-to-face interview.
• Combine a bilingual background with education. Education remains a standard for employers, and prospective employees should note any career training, college, or university education.
• Improve written skills in both languages. Bilingual workers may be expected to use their second language in speech and writing. Taking advanced language classes can improve the written skills of native speakers, further enhancing marketability to employers.

Analytical Thinking in the Bilingual Workforce
The benefit of bilingual employees goes deeper than language. Bilingual people use different frames of reference to approach problems, thereby increasing analytical ability. “Bilingual and bicultural people see things from a different angle,” notes Octavio Mateo, human relations manager for Citibank, in Best Careers for Bilingual Latinos.

Enhancing bilingual ability with formal education may be the most efficient way to attract attention in job interviews. While bilingual skill cannot guarantee a particular career or salary, workers who know how to market their language ability show an added dimension of their ability to prospective employers.

Six Physical Education Games and Activities Your Elementary Students Will Love

The physical education games that are described in this article can be played at the beginning of gym class as part of a warm exercise, during the period wholly or partially devoted to games or physical education activities or at the end of class as part of cool down exercises.

In addition to the obvious benefits of providing good exercise, combating obesity and developing motor skills, the other skills that I wanted my students to demonstrate when they play these games are co-operation, sportsmanship and enjoyment.

Here are 6 examples of physical education games that my students and I enjoyed.

1. The Sheep And The Wolf

Formation: Two lines are drawn 20 to 30 feet apart. One student is the wolf and the rest are sheep. The sheep stand behind one line and the wolf stands in the center.

Aim: When the wolf claps his hands, the sheep try to run from one line to another without being tagged on the back. If they are caught, they become wolves. Only the original wolf can clap his hands to bring the sheep out.

2. Squirrels In The Trees

Have the class form a large circle and count off in three’s. Have two students, one being a fox and the other a squirreloutside the circle.

Have the one’s and three’s join hands forming an arch (or tree) with the number two’s in the middle as squirrels.

To start the activity, the fox chases the squirrel outside the tree. The squirrel runs into a tree to get away.

The squirrel in that tree must now run out of the tree and is chased by the fox. If the squirrel is caught, he becomes the fox.

Have all the squirrels squat down when they run into a tree so that all squirrels have a chance.

Have the other students that are trees change places with the squirrels so that everyone has a turn running.

3. Bounce Change

Have students form two lines (the red team and the blue team) behind two leaders about 15 feet apart. Each student in each line gets a number from 1 to the end.

Place a hula hoop at opposite ends of each team’s line. Place a blue ball in one hoop and a red ball in the other hoop.

When the teacher calls out a number, the two students with that number must run to a hoop, get their team’s colour ball and bounce it to the other team’s hoop.

in the meantime, the leader of each team, has their team form and sit in a circle. Once the student place the ball in the other team’s hoop, he returns and sits in his team’s circle. The first team all sitting gets a point.

The game continues with the teacher calling out a different number.

4. Stretched Baseball

Play this game on a baseball diamond or line up 4 bases about 10 feet apart with the first base being about 25 feet from home plate.

Divide the class into two teams, one team at bat and the other in the field. Each player gets a turn at bat instead of 3 outs.

Rather than a baseball, you can use a beach ball or T-ball for primary grade students or kick a soccer ball. If the fielding player throws the ball past home plate before the runner reaches home, the runner is out.

Count runs just as in baseball.

5. Club Snatch

Students are divided into two teams and numbered. The teams face each other with a club or similar object placed in the center between the two teams.

The teacher calls a number and that numbered student on each team tries to grab the club and get back to their postion without getting tagged. If the student succeeds, he/she earns a point for their team. The team with the most points wins.

Note: You can give 2 points for getting back safely and 1 point for tagging the player with the object.

6. Tail Snatching

Divide the class into 2 teams and place them a fair distance apart. Give each team, strips of coloured cloth, a different colour for each team. Each player sticks the tail under their belt and is not allowed to tie or hide it.

At the signal, the teams run toward each other and attempt to snatch off each other’s tails. Holding and fighting,etc. are not allowed.

After a few minutes the team that has the most of the other team’s tails is the winner.

Feel free to adapt or change these physical education games according to the needs of your class. Just be sure that you and your students have fun, and if you want more just go to my website.

The Importance of Effective Physical Education Lesson Plan

As parents, teachers, and fellow Americans, we understand that the health of our future generations is at stake, and that all exercise, from preschool physical education to gym class for high school seniors is important. It is important for students, parents and teachers to understand the importance of having and implementing an effective lesson plan to facilitate of a good program. No matter what age group or grade level you teach, both you and your students will benefit by having an effective lesson plan. In general, a P.E. lesson plan is a “plan of action” so that you are prepared with a purpose and a strategy for the day’s activities,. An effective P.E. lesson plan will have the following information: A statement of purpose, also known as an objective The goals you plan to achieve The equipment you will need for each activity Step by step instructions for each activity An effective lesson plan will help you to prepare, manage, and analyze. In other words, it will help you before, during, and after. There are different types of lesson plans based on the age of the students. Preschool kids merely need a bit of structure and fun exercise since they are full of energy anyway. PE lesson plans for elementary students should be stimulating for the body and mind; otherwise the students will quickly lose interest in the activity. High school students can be difficult since they are very susceptible to apathy. Competitive games are often the most effective for those with high hormone levels, which is why they should be encouraged to take part in at least one after school activity or organized sport. Prepare/Before With a lesson plan, you will have the equipment and instructions listed out so that you can have everything ready. Also, you will have goals and a purpose already laid out for why you are doing what you are doing. When you are familiar with the structure of your day, you can easily transition into the next activity without fumbling around for a new idea. Always plan more than you intend to accomplish with your students, just in case an activity does not work out as you planned. Manage/During: A step by step plan will give you something to turn to as you go. Oftentimes, instructions are forgotten or missed once we step in front of a group of blank eyes. With a plan, you can constantly check to make sure you are not forgetting any steps, especially if you are inventing a new game, or altering an old one. Also, if you have a plan put down on paper, it is easier to adapt and/or manage as necessary. You can keep notes about your plan and easily reference which activities were successful and which were difficult to plan. For preschool physical education, this is extremely helpful since it is much more difficult to convince young children to participate as a requirement. Analyze/After: After each class is over, you will be able to look back on your written plan and analyze what worked or didn’t work, take notes, and make changes for future classes. You can swap lesson plans with other teachers, and after school activity organizers as a way to expand your horizons and get fresh new idea.

Health Education Scope, Importance and Responsibilities of a Trained Health Educator

Health Education: Health education is a social science that draws from the biological, environmental,  psychological, physical and medical sciences to promote health and prevent disease, disability and premature death through education-driven voluntary behavior change activities. Health education is the development of individual, group, institutional, community and systemic strategies to improve health knowledge, attitudes, skills and behavior. The purpose of health education is to positively influence the health behavior of individuals and communities as well as the living and working conditions that influence their health.

Health education is not only concerned with the communication of information, but also with fostering the motivation, skills and confidence (self-efficacy) necessary to take action to improve health. Health education includes the communication of information concerning the underlying social, economic and environmental conditions impacting on health, as well as individual risk factors and risk behaviors, and use of the health care system. Thus, health education may involve the communication of information, and development of skills which demonstrates the political feasibility and organizational possibilities of various forms of action to address social, economic and environmental determinants of health.

Health education is an essential tool of community health. Every branch of community health has a health educational aspect and every community health worker is a health educator. But health education has been defined as a process which effects changes in the health practices of people and in the knowledge and attitudes related to suet changes.

A great deal of ill-health in this country and elsewhere is due to ignorance of simple rules of hygiene or of indifference to their practical application. However, health is of the greatest importance and an indispensable factor in life. Without it a man becomes burden to others and useless to himself. In other words, health is the basis of individual and social welfare.

But the concept of health and practice of health-education is almost as old as the human race. Health education has been defined as “the sum of all experiences in school and elsewhere that favor ably influence habits, attitudes and knowledge, related to individual, community and racial health.”

Who can provide health education: Health education is the very foundation of every successful public health programme so one of the main functions educations should be to help every child deve­lop a healthy body, an alert mind and sound emotional attitudes. Health education aims at bridging the gulf between the health knowledge and health practices of the children.

Some people specialize in health education (trained and/or certified health education specialists).  Others perform selected health education functions as part of what they consider their primary responsibility (medical treatment, nursing, social work, physical therapy, oral hygiene, etc.).  Lay workers learn on the job to do specific, limited educational tasks to encourage healthy behavior. Para-professionals and health professionals from other disciplines are not familiar with the specialized body of health education knowledge, skills, theories, and research, nor is it their primary interest or professional development focus.  This will limit their effectiveness with clients and communities, and their cost-effectiveness. Health education requires intensive specialized study

Importance and scope of health education: Health education improves the health status of individuals, families, communities, states, and the nation. At present in our country much attention is being paid to the education for total health. Good health is a pre condition for good education. There is a saying that sound mind lives in a sound body. So, education cannot be acquired without the proper frame of the mind and proper frame of mind cannot be possible without proper health and hygiene. Realizing the importance of health education Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53 stated: “Unless! Physical education is accepted as an integral part of education and the educational authorities recognize it, need in schools the youth of the country, which form its ‘most variable asset, will never be able to pull their full weigh to national welfare. Health education encompasses not only the information on what behaviors are healthy, but also how to achieve those behaviors with skills development and can sometimes include motivation to change. For example, in addition to knowing what foods are healthy, know how to prepare those foods, and easy ways to incorporate them into your diet. All these aspects together are more likely to result in behavior changes that lead to improved health.

  •  Health education enhances the quality of life for all people.
  •  Health education reduces premature deaths.
  •  By focusing on prevention, health education reduces the costs (both financial and human)
  •  that individuals, employers, families, insurance companies, medical facilities, communities,
  •   the state and the nation would spend on medical treatment.

The emphasis so far has been more on the academic type of education without proper consideration being given to physical welfare and the main­tenance ‘ proper standards of health of the people”.

Resposibilities of a trained health educator: The group that provides health education is health educators. These professionals differ from health teachers in that they focus on behavior change and do not work in a school class format. Health educators may work with individuals or groups.

  • Develop health education programs    
  • Coordinate health education programs
  • Implement health education programs
  • Build coalitions
  • Identify resources
  • Make referrals
  • Develop audio, visual, print and electronic materials
  • Conduct research
  • Write scholarly articles
  • Write grants
  • Develop social marketing and mass media campaigns
  • Organize/ mobilize communities for action
  • Handle controversial health issues/content
  • Assess individual and community needs
  • Plan health education programs
  • Manage health education programs & personnel
  • Evaluate health education programs
  • Advocate for health related issues
  • Encourage healthy behavior
  •  Use a variety of education/training methods

Geocaching Makes Walking Fun for Physical Education Classes

Walking is one of the best exercises for lifetime fitness. But let’s face it – plain old walking can be a boring proposition for students. As a result, the canny physical education teacher will find ways to make a walk more exciting.

Thanks to modern technology, there is now a fun activity that combines satellite navigation, orienteering, computer skills, treasure hunting…and walking. It’s a super cross-curricular game that your students will love.

Called “geocaching,” (pronounced “geo cashing”) it makes use of GPS units to find prizes hidden by other geocachers.


GPS stands for “Global Positioning System” and these handheld electronic units make use of satellites to pinpoint your latitude and longitude to within three meters. A GPS will help you navigate from your current position to another location using their built-in maps and instructions.

GPS units cost anywhere from $100 and up. As an alternative, some Blackberry units can be GPS-enabled. You can download “Geocache Navigator” for free for 60 days. For more information, see the “Blackberry.Geocaching” website.

However, the big surge in GPS use will come when regular GPS-enabled cell phones hit the market. It is estimated that 500 million such cell phones will be in use, worldwide, by 2012.


To start a geocaching quest, log in to the “Geocaching” website. Enter the postal code of your area and you’ll see several local cache locations, each with a short verbal description, a level of difficulty and a location shown on the Google Map website.

To get your GPS co-ordinates, you must first register (it’s free). You can then receive the GPS longitude and latitude co-ordinates. An example might be N43o40.110’W083o23.378′
Your job as a geocacher is to enter the co-ordinates into your GPS unit, then follow the directions to the cache. This will involve a nice hike for your students.

Before embarking on your quest, you could give a cross-curricular lesson on latitude, longitude and satellites…not to mention the use of the world wide web.

Your GPS will get you within 6 to 20 feet from your target. You then have to search to find the cache, which usually will be a plastic container.

Most containers will contain a dollar-store item such as a plastic animal, pencil or measuring tapes. They will also contain a logbook that you can read, and then sign. Seeing who else has been to the cache is half the fun. Take the prize, then replace it with a prize of your own.


You can go geocaching with your entire class, or split into groups, as long as each group has a supervisor. Also, you could also establish a cache or two of your own, in a location you know to be safe and easily accessible.

The good thing about a GPS is that it’s hard to get lost when you have one in your hand. It will leave a trail of “bread crumbs” as you walk – little dots on the display screen that show you how to retrace your steps. However, it’s also good to bring a compass, just in case the GPS batteries die.

And the best thing about geocaching? It will get your students walking – and make it fun at the same time!

Advancing Your Skills: Online Teacher Education Courses

If you are looking to enhance your teaching and advance your career, it may be a great choice for you to earn graduate credit for teachers. High quality, graduate-level online teacher education courses are a great alternative to the traditional classroom atmosphere. We all know that teachers are busier than ever, but with online classes, it is easy for teachers to fit time in their schedules. Online courses are easily accessible and will make your time learning fly by! The benefits are also incredible: enjoy fun and flexible learning while earning graduate credit that will allow you to move farther in your career. The online teacher education courses will inform you on different strategies and resources to utilize directly into your own classroom. You will not be the only one to benefit from this opportunity. Your students will learn better, your school will gain reputation and your school district will be recognized for improved instruction and student outcomes. All of these results will help increase your chance of a higher salary and a more rewarding career experience.

There is sometimes a misunderstanding that online classes are not interactive since you are not face to face with other people. However, that is not the case at all. Most, if not all, online courses offer the option of online discussion boards so that you can be in constant contact with other colleagues to discuss ideas, problems, and questions regarding your programs of study. Additionally, you receive one on one recommendations and criticism from your professor. When choosing this program, you really are getting the best of both worlds since you can be at home in a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere while at the same time learning material that will prove beneficial in leading to greater opportunities for your future career.

Online teacher certification courses are also developed and taught by highly qualified professors. You will definitely not be caught up in a scam when you choose to enroll. Most universities are now offering online programs because of their convenience, practicality and interactivity. Graduate credit for teachers can be achieved during your own time, with even the degree programs being flexible. In fact, the only face-to-face requirements are the field experiences in your subject and/or grade specialization. To make things even easier, this can be conveniently arranged and completed in a school near you, so that travel time is minimal. The programs are also very practical because you are provided with the tools to lead curricular advancements and instructional improvements, in any subject area of your choice.

During these tough economic times, alternative options to traditional graduate programs must be considered. The advantages of online teacher education courses are evident. They provide a quality education while minimizing costs and travel. Additionally, taking these courses will provide the foundation for a strong teaching background and provide a unique perspective on teaching. Teaching certifications and graduate credit provided by these programs make them a viable option. If you are looking to advance your teaching career today, consider the endless opportunities that these online programs will provide.

Physical Education Importance

Education in the care and development of the human body, stressing athletics and including hygiene is called physical education. Physical education is an important part of educational activity in which the main concern is with bodily movements and which takes place in an educational establishment. Physical Education aims not only at physical development but is also concerned with education of the whole personality of a person’s behavior, organic, aesthetic, neuromuscular, ethics and emotion etc.

Different people define physical education importance in different words:

1. Jackson R. Sharman points out that physical education is that part of education which takes place through activities, which involves the motor mechanism of human body which results in an individual’s formulating behavior patterns.

2. Charles A. Bucher defines physical education, an integral part of total education process, is a field of endeavour which has as its aim the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view to realizing these outcomes.”

3. Barrow defined Physical Education as an education of and through human movement where many of educational objectives are achieved by means of big muscle activities involving sports, games, gymnastic, dance and exercise.

4. According to Webster’s Dictionary Physical education is a part of education which gives instructions in the development and care of the body randing from simple callisthenic exercises to a course of study providing training in hygiene, gymnastics and the performance and management of athletics games.

5. Central Advisory Board of physical Education and Recreation defines Physical education as an education through physical activities for the development of total personality of the child to its fullness and perfection in body, mind and spirit.

Importance and benefits of physical education

Physical fitness is one of the most important factors for the living with a healthy lifestyle. Physical education promotes the importance of regular fitness activity in the routine and also helps the students to maintain their fitness, develop their muscular strength, increase their stamina and thus stretch their physical abilities to an optimum level.

In the present world, the world of technology, most of us are living inactive life style. We ride instead of walk, sit instead of stand and watches instead of participants. Such type of inactivity or sedentary life is damaging to mental and physical health. Thus, physical education is most important as a part of balanced healthy living.

1. Physical education is essential during elementary & secondary education for the proper

growth and development of student.

2. To maintain good health and fitness during adulthood physical education is very


3. During old Age, physical education is important to prevent and treat various ailments

and disease.

4. To prevent and treat various ailments and disease in old age physical education is very      beneficial.

5. It is important as it provides us the knowledge of our bodies from musculoskeletal,

physiological and biochemical point of view.

6- physical education aware we about our bodies from musculoskeletal, physiological and     biochemical point of view.

7. It teaches us various physical activities that can be practiced now in later life such

as motor skills for the games and sports of volleyball, tennis, swimming and so on.

8- We thought Value of ethical behavior in all part of life by physical education.

9. Physical education teaches us the importance of physical fitness and how to become

physically fit.

10. It is important for aesthetic reasons as by take part in physical fitness programs

like gymnastics and dance, beauty and grace in cultivated in the movement.

11. It is also important for catharsis reasons with mean releasing of energy, emotion,

tension or frustration and some people let off their extra steam by participating various

games and sports which are part of physical education.

This way physical education helps us in all parts of our life.

Obama Grants: Pell Grants For Moms

For many the idea of returning to college as working mothers seems almost a dream. However it need not be with the assistance of the government beneath the Obama administration. However do you know what the Obama grant is all about? In truth, the federal programs gaining attention for helping mothers attend college are not new creations but rather they’re improvements on existing government benefits. As a mom the idea of going back to college maybe a dream you never thought could be fulfilled now it can through the Pell grants a huge asset to any potential student. Financial aid awarded by the government known as the Federal Pell grants has been in existence for many years and is specifically used for the furtherance of college. Unlike a loan, a Pell grant does not have to be repaid, which makes them very attractive to students seeking aid. Seeking an undergraduate degree? Then you have a good running in being awarded the Pell grant formed specifically for those without a bachelor’s or professional degree. As a single working mother such advantages is creating a huge stir when it comes to the exciting Scholarship for Moms program. President Obama as well as his administration is encouraging mothers to attend college through the funds which have been made available through the Pell grants although there is no specific program given. The Pell grant has a further advantage besides it being a monetary gift in that it does not place restrictions when it comes to sourcing other financial aids. Aid from other federal programs as well as private, non-federal institutions can be applied to cover education costs. The 1st of July 2009 begins the start of the award year which will come to an end on the 30th June 2010 with the maximum being paid out throughthe Pell grant of $5,350.00. So even though this amount will most likely not cover all your college costs, you can still apply for other resources to supplement your federal Pell grant aid. With so many benefits it’s of no surprise that the federal Pell grant does not limit you once you are awarded funds to the payment of tuition. Books, laptops, housing and travel expenses are acceptable costs when it comes to paying for education. With much attention being paid by the Obama administration to the importance of further education the scholarships for moms’ has become ever more popular also highlighting the many advantages of the Pell grant program. To become a student and earn a degree as a single, working mother such a federal program fills all the specifics. For some college was a dream that had to be left on the side due to financial difficulties or family concerns, this is no longer so. It is encouraging to see how the Obama grant obtained through the federal Pell grant program has benefited many to go to college. This is exactly true for all those working mothers. If you’re a single mom working a full-time job, the current administration is encouraging you to return to college and earn a degree. The current administration is heartily cheering for single, full-time working mothers to apply for college and earn a degree. Your future could be much brighter than you realize.